Public Health Framework for Smart Cities within the Comprehensive Approach to Sustainability in Europe: Case Study of Diabetes
1.1. Smart Cities
1.2. A New Green Deal
1.3. The Aim of the Study
2. A Smart and Healthy City
2.1. Public Health in the City
2.2. Smart and Digital Opportunities
2.3. Smart City Examples
- Problem and motivation: Identify the (urban) public health functions that are key and that could be supported digitally within the smart city. This information will be obtained from both interacting with public health experts and the literature.
- Objectives for a solution: Developing Smart Public Health, with a sustainable focus within a smart city. Defining a framework of relevant health-related data to be collected from the smart city, and the tools required for its proper management, combining data from experts and literature guidelines (e.g., European Green Deal).
- Design and development: Together with the experts, an Interactive Smart Public Health City (SPHEC) information system framework was designed to enable the city to define specific policies and to guide the proper implementation of actions.
- Demonstration: The use case of diabetes mellitus care will be addressed in a comprehensive perspective within the public health smart city (SPHEC) concept. In this process of demonstration, both experts and the authors participated in the discussion.
- Evaluation: We will use a set of indicators (defined at stage 2) to evaluate the artefact. This information will also contribute to improving the framework.
- Communication: This task is addressed in this paper and the conclusions are presented in a set of public health and smart city conferences.
4.1. Problem and Motivation
- Information about water and sanitation usage and management;
- Information about air and noise pollution;
- Information about infection diseases (communicable diseases);
- Information about public places health and safety management;
- Information about promoting health well-being (such as proposed walking paths);
- A population-based information system.
- System and equipment hazard and vulnerability mapping;
- Extreme weather preparedness, and response plans and instructions;
- Extreme heat plans (including heat early warning and advisable locations);
- Non-heat early warning (e.g., flooding, vector-borne disease treats);
- Climate-health monitoring and outcome surveillance;
- Green space and biodiversity management.
4.2. Objectives for a Solution
4.3. Design and Development
4.4. Demonstration: Smart Diabetes Management
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|City´s Public Health Functions||Sustainability Issues||Digital and Smart City Approaches|
|Air quality control||Improve quality of air by reducing traffic and business emissions and reducing risk by informing the population about threats.||Disseminate digital sensors, and control the information from a control room for quick detection and response: The Smart Public Health City (SPHEC) framework|
|Water resources management||Control water consumption and reutilization. Alert for excess consumption and risks|
|Develop app to interact and to provide useful information to the citizens|
|Noise control||Control automobile, motorcycles, and aviation traffic|
Urban (night life) noise
|Develop app to interact and to provide useful information to the citizens|
|Stress control and mental health||Understand the city’s main stress sources (violence, traffic tourism, poverty, etc.) ||Develop app to interact and to provide useful information to the citizens|
|Control of non-healthy behaviors (food, smoking, drinking, mobility, …) that lead to chronic care conditions||Improve the mobility of people, promote autonomous vehicles, promote access to good quality and low carbon-footprint food, etc. [38,39]||Develop app with chatbot to dynamically interact with the citizens, promoting changes in behavior|
|Infection diseases control||Management of infection cases with low-print footage||Develop system to integrate infection information within the city health institutions|
|Food quality (Restaurants and schools)||Management of nutrition information and alerts||Develop app|
|Education and prevention||Dynamic Information System||Develop app to provide quality public health information|
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Lapão, L.V.; Correia, J.C.; Jevtic, M. Public Health Framework for Smart Cities within the Comprehensive Approach to Sustainability in Europe: Case Study of Diabetes. Sustainability 2023, 15, 4269. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15054269
Lapão LV, Correia JC, Jevtic M. Public Health Framework for Smart Cities within the Comprehensive Approach to Sustainability in Europe: Case Study of Diabetes. Sustainability. 2023; 15(5):4269. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15054269Chicago/Turabian Style
Lapão, Luís Velez, Jorge César Correia, and Marija Jevtic. 2023. "Public Health Framework for Smart Cities within the Comprehensive Approach to Sustainability in Europe: Case Study of Diabetes" Sustainability 15, no. 5: 4269. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15054269