Next Article in Journal
Interrelationships among Tourism, Economic, and Environmental Time Series—The Case of Slovenia
Previous Article in Journal
A Review of Rubberised Asphalt for Flexible Pavement Applications: Production, Content, Performance, Motivations and Future Directions
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Carbon Capture and Storage: Application in the Oil and Gas Industry

Petroleum and Petrochemical Engineering School, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran
Faculty of Petroleum Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 1591634311, Iran
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2023, 15(19), 14486;
Submission received: 9 September 2023 / Revised: 1 October 2023 / Accepted: 2 October 2023 / Published: 4 October 2023
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Sustainability and Applications)


As a rapidly evolving technology, carbon capture and storage (CCS) can potentially lower the levels of greenhouse gas emissions from the oil and gas industry. This paper provides a comprehensive review of different aspects of CCS technology, including its key components, the methods and stages of carbon storage, implied environmental effects, and its pros and cons. This paper also investigates the utilization of CCS as an alternative method to water injection into oil reservoirs. It also probes the technical and operational challenges of implementing CCS technology in the oil and gas industry. Additionally, this paper examines the regulatory and policy issues associated with CCS, including incentives and frameworks for promoting the deployment of CCS technology. Finally, in this paper the potential benefits of CCS are discussed, including reducing the carbon footprint of the oil and gas industry, enhancing energy security, and supporting the transition to a low-carbon economy.

1. Introduction

CCS captures carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial processes, transports it to storage, and injects it into underground formations for long-term storage [1]. Carbon storage is used to prevent CO2 from entering the atmosphere and causing climate change (Figure 1) [2]. The key components of CCS include capture, transport, and storage [3]. Capture separates CO2 from other gases released during industrial processes, transport transports the captured CO2 to storage, and storage injects the CO2 into geological formations for long-term storage [4].
There are several methods of carbon storage, including geological storage, ocean storage, and mineral storage [5]. Geological storage, as the most popular approach, involves injecting CO2 into subterranean geological formations like coal seams, deep saline formations, and depleted oil and gas reserves [5,6].
Different carbon storage methods work in different industries, with the oil and gas industry being one of the major sectors using CCS [7]. CCS can be very helpful in lowering carbon dioxide emissions because the industry is a substantial producer of greenhouse gas emissions [8].
The different stages of carbon storage include site selection, characterization, injection, and post-injection monitoring [9]. Site selection involves identifying suitable geological formations for CO2 storage, characterization includes assessing the properties of formations to ensure safe and effective storage, injection comprises injecting CO2 into the formations, and post-injection monitoring encompasses monitoring the storage sites to ensure the injected CO2 remains stored underground [1].
CCS can also be used as an alternative for water injection into oil reservoirs, a technique known as carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) or enhanced oil recovery (EOR) [10]. This involves injecting CO2 into oil reservoirs to increase oil recovery while simultaneously storing the CO2 underground [11].
While CCS is used to lower greenhouse gas emissions, negative environmental impacts, such as the risk of CO2 leakage and potential impacts on groundwater resources, must also be considered [12].
The technologies used in CCS, especially in petroleum engineering, include various methods of capture, such as post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture, and oxy-fuel combustion [13]. Transport methods include pipelines, ships, and trucks, while storage methods include geological storage, ocean storage, and mineral storage [14,15].
Carbon storage supports reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the oil and gas industry, the enhancement of energy security, and the transition to a low-carbon economy [16,17,18]; however, there are still technical and operational challenges associated with CCS technology, including the high cost of operation, the need for regulatory frameworks and incentives to promote CCS deployment, and the public perception of CCS as a viable solution for climate change [19,20,21].
This paper provides a systematic review of the application of CCS technology in different aspects of the oil and gas industry. The key components of CCS, including capture, transport, and storage, as well as the different methods and challenges associated with each stage, have been discussed. The different methods of carbon storage, such as geological storage, ocean storage, and mineralization, have been investigated, as has how they work in different industries, especially the oil and gas industry. The stages of carbon storage, including site characterization, injection, and monitoring, and post-closure activities have been outlined, along with the technical and operational challenges associated with each stage. The potential benefits and challenges associated with using the CCS method as an alternative method for water injection in oil reservoirs have been discussed. The environmental impacts of CCS, such as potential risks to groundwater resources and local ecosystems, have also been considered, along with the measures that can be taken to mitigate these risks. Additionally, the technologies used in the CCS method, especially in petroleum engineering, have been investigated, as has the potential for innovation in and the improvement of these technologies. The advantages and disadvantages of the carbon storage method have been discussed, including its potential benefits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and enhancing energy security, as well as the potential risks and uncertainties associated with the long-term storage of carbon. Finally, CCS and EOR, as well as the potential for combining these technologies to enhance oil production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions, have been explored. The policy and regulatory issues associated with CCS deployment, including the need for supportive policies and incentives, as well as the potential for international cooperation and collaboration in promoting CCS technology, have also been considered.

2. Background

2.1. The Purpose of CCS in the Oil and Gas Industry

The primary objective of carbon storage, especially in the oil and gas industry, is to lower greenhouse gas emissions and reduce their impact on climate change [22]. Carbon storage methods, like geological storage and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), can help reduce the carbon footprint of oil and gas operations, while also providing opportunities for enhanced oil and gas recovery [22,23]. By capturing and storing CO2, these methods can prevent its release into the atmosphere, which contributes to climate change [2].
Implementing carbon storage methods would extend the lifetime of existing oil and gas reservoirs by enhancing recovery and reducing the amount of CO2 emitted during production [24]. This can provide economic benefits for oil and gas companies, while also reducing the environmental impact of their operations [24,25].
CCS is a critical technology for the heavy oil industry [26]. Heavy oil production typically involves injecting steam into a reservoir to heat oil and reduce its viscosity, making it easier to extract. This process, referred to as thermal EOR, requires a significant amount of energy to generate steam [27].
The majority of this energy comes from burning natural gas or other fossil fuels that release CO2 into the atmosphere [28]. This issue becomes problematic because CO2 is a greenhouse gas that adversely contributes to climate change [29,30].
CCS is a technology that allows for capturing the CO2 emitted during heavy oil production and storing it underground instead of releasing it into the atmosphere [31]. The process involves capturing CO2 at the source, such as a gas plant or a boiler, and transporting it via pipelines to a storage site [32].
Xu et al. [33] discussed the effects of lean zones on steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) performance, which is a common method used in the heavy oil industry to extract bitumen from reservoirs. A significant amount of steam is required to heat reservoirs and reduce the viscosity of the bitumen for extraction [33,34,35]. In the presence of lean zones even more steam needs to be injected to maintain the desired temperature and pressure for effective extraction [34,36]. The heavy oil industry consumes a lot of energy in the form of steam to extract bitumen [37].
In the case of heavy oil production, the captured CO2 can be used for EOR. This approach can reduce the amount of fresh steam that needs to be injected [38,39]. It, in turn, reduces the amount of fossil fuels needed for generating steam, and, thereby, helps to lessen greenhouse gas emissions associated with heavy oil production [40].

2.2. Key Components of CCS

CCS consists of four key components: capture, transport, storage, and utilization [3]. These components are critical to the success of the technology [41]. The capture process involves separating CO2 from other gases emitted during industrial processes. There are several capture technologies available, including post-combustion, pre-combustion, and oxy-fuel combustion captures [42]. Post-combustion capture removes CO2 from the exhaust gas after combustion, while pre-combustion capture converts fossil fuels into a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and CO2 before combustion [43,44]. Oxy-fuel combustion involves burning fossil fuels in a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas, producing a flue gas stream that is primarily composed of CO2 [45].
Post-combustion capture involves capturing CO2 from power plant flue gases, which is the easiest and most widely used technology [46]. The efficiency of this technology is relatively low compared to that of the other techniques, with capture rates between 85 and 90%, but it is cost-effective compared to other capture methods [47].
Pre-combustion capture is used in gasification processes that turn fossil fuels into gas that can be burned cleanly [48]. This technology can capture roughly 95% of the CO2 produced, making it very efficient; however, it is expensive to use [49].
Oxy-fuel combustion capture involves burning fuels with pure oxygen, producing flue gas with a high concentration of CO2, which is easy to capture. It has the highest capture efficiency, up to 99%, and is a cost-effective method [50].
Overall, while pre-combustion capture is the most efficient capture technology, it is expensive to implement [51,52]. Post-combustion capture is the most cost-effective and widely used method, but its efficiency is lower than that of oxy-fuel combustion capture [53].
The transport process involves moving the captured CO2 from the capture site to a storage site. CO2 can be transported via pipelines, ships, or trucks. Pipeline transportation is the most common method of CO2 transport and is cost-effective over long distances [54,55]. Ships and trucks are typically used for short distances or in areas where pipelines are not feasible [56,57].
During storage, CO2 is injected into a formation for long-term storage [58]. Several types of geological formations can be used for CO2 storage, including depleted oil and gas reservoirs, saline formations, and deep coal seams [58,59]. Depleted oil and gas reservoirs are the most common storage option, as they have already been explored and developed for hydrocarbon production. Saline formations are large underground formations that contain brackish water and are not suitable for drinking or agriculture. Deep coal seams are another potential storage option, as they can adsorb CO2 and release methane [60,61,62].
The fourth component, utilization, refers to the process of utilizing the captured CO2 for various purposes. Instead of simply storing the CO2 underground, it can be put to beneficial use in different applications. Some common utilization methods include the following:
  • EOR: The captured CO2 is injected into oil reservoirs to enhance oil production. CO2 helps reduce the viscosity of the oil, making it easier to extract.
  • Industrial processes: CO2 can be used as a raw material in various industrial processes, such as chemical manufacturing or the production of synthetic fuels.
  • Mineralization: CO2 can be reacted with certain minerals to form stable carbonates, which can be used in construction materials or other applications.
  • Agricultural applications: CO2 can be used in agricultural practices, such as greenhouse farming or enhancing plant growth.
  • Direct air capture (DAC): Using this technique, CO2 is extracted from the air and utilized for different purposes, such as carbon-neutral fuel production or carbon removal [60,61,62].

2.3. Different Methods of Carbon Storage

There are several methods with which to accomplish a carbon storage project, which are listed below:
  • Geological storage: CO2 is stored in this method in formations such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs, saline aquifers, and coal beds [58].
  • Ocean storage: This method involves storing CO2 in deep ocean water, where it can be dissolved and stored for long periods [63].
  • Mineral carbonation: This method involves converting CO2 into stable carbonates through chemical reactions with minerals [64,65].
  • BECCS: This method involves capturing CO2 emissions from biomass power plants and storing them in geological formations [66].
  • DAC: This method involves capturing CO2 directly from the air using specialized equipment and storing it in geological formations [67].
  • Industrial use: This is another important component of carbon dioxide utilization. CO2 can be used as a raw material in various industrial processes, such as chemical manufacturing or the production of synthetic fuels. This enables the conversion of CO2 into useful products, lowering emissions and fostering the development of a more sustainable future [67].
These methods, as shown in Figure 2, have their advantages and disadvantages and require careful consideration when implementing carbon storage projects [68].

2.3.1. Geological Storage

Geological storage involves injecting CO2 into geological formations such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs, aquifers, and coal seams [69]. This method is considered to be the most viable and widely used method for carbon storage due to the abundance of geological formations that can be used for storage [70].
Capturing CO2 from industrial processes, compressing it, and injecting it into underground geological formations are steps involved in the process of geological storage. Once trapped by cap rock or other geological features that prevent it from escaping into the atmosphere, the CO2 is permanently stored in the geological formations [1]. After this process, the storage location is monitored to make sure the CO2 is kept in place and does not escape into the environment.
Advantages of geological storage include the following:
  • Large storage capacity: Geological formations have the potential to store large amounts of CO2, making them ideal for large-scale carbon storage projects [71].
  • Proven technology: Geological storage has been used for decades to store natural gas and other substances, making it a proven and reliable technology [72].
  • Permanent storage: CO2 stored in geological formations is trapped permanently, reducing the risk of emissions into the atmosphere [73].
  • Synergies with existing infrastructure: Geological formations used for carbon storage are often located near existing oil and gas infrastructure, making it easier to transport and store CO2 [74,75].
Disadvantages of geological storage include the following:
  • Potential for leakage: While geological formations are designed to trap CO2, there is a risk of leakage that could result in environmental damage and health risks [76].
  • Limited availability of suitable sites: Not all geological formations are suitable for carbon storage, and finding suitable sites can be challenging [77].
  • High costs: Geological storage can be expensive due to the costs of capturing, compressing, and transporting CO2, as well as the costs of monitoring and maintaining storage sites [73].
Geological storage has a larger capacity than other methods, such as ocean storage and mineral carbonation [78,79,80]; however, the decision to use this approach will be influenced by several considerations, including the cost of the process, the accessibility of storage locations, and the environmental concerns associated with this method [5,81].

2.3.2. Ocean Storage

Ocean storage involves capturing CO2 from industrial processes, compressing it, and transporting it to the sea. CO2 is then injected into deep ocean water, where it can be dissolved and stored for long periods [63]. The stored CO2 is then monitored to ensure that it remains dissolved and prevent it from escaping into the atmosphere [82]. This method is still in the experimental phase and requires further research to determine its feasibility and potential environmental impacts [83].
Advantages of ocean storage include the following:
  • Large storage capacity: The deep ocean has the potential to store vast amounts of CO2, making it an attractive option for large-scale carbon storage projects [63].
  • Natural carbon sinks: The ocean is a natural carbon sink, and storing CO2 in ocean water could potentially enhance the ocean’s ability to adsorb carbon from the atmosphere [84,85].
  • Reduced risk of leakage: Unlike geological formations, the ocean is constantly in motion, which reduces the risk of CO2 leakage [86].
Disadvantages of geological storage include the following:
  • Environmental risks: Injecting large amounts of CO2 into the ocean could potentially have negative environmental impacts, such as ocean acidification and harm to marine life [63].
  • Technological challenges: Injecting CO2 into the ocean requires specialized equipment and infrastructure, which can be expensive and challenging to implement [87].
  • Uncertainty: The long-term effects of ocean storage on the environment and marine life are not yet fully understood, and further research is needed to determine its feasibility [88].
Compared to other methods of carbon storage, ocean storage has the advantages of a large storage capacity and reduced risk of leakage [79]. Nevertheless, the choice of this method will depend on a variety of factors, including the accessibility of suitable storage locations, the cost of the process, and the environmental risks associated with each method [89,90].

2.3.3. Mineral Carbonation

Mineral carbonation is a method of carbon storage that involves converting CO2 into stable carbonates through chemical reactions with minerals [91]. This method is still in the experimental phase and requires further research to determine its feasibility and potential environmental impacts [83]. The process of mineral carbonation involves capturing CO2 from industrial processes and exposing it to naturally occurring minerals that react with CO2 to form stable carbonates. These carbonates can then be stored permanently in geological formations, such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs or deep saline aquifers [1,71].
Advantages of mineral carbonation include the following:
  • Permanent storage: Carbonates formed by the carbonation of minerals are stable and can be stored permanently in geological formations [71].
  • Potential for carbon-negative processes: Mineral carbonation has the potential to be a carbon-negative process, i.e., it removes more CO2 from the atmosphere than it emits [92].
  • Use of abundant minerals: The minerals used in mineral carbonation are abundant and widely available, reducing the cost and environmental impact of the technology [93].
Disadvantages of geological storage include the following:
  • Technological challenges: Mineral carbonation requires specialized equipment and infrastructure, which can be expensive and challenging to implement [65].
  • Slow reaction rates: The reaction rates involved in mineral carbonation are slow, which can limit the storage capacity and efficiency of the technology [94].
  • Uncertainty: The long-term effects of mineral carbonation on the environment and geological formations are not yet fully understood, and further research is needed to determine its feasibility [79].
Compared to other methods of carbon storage, mineral carbonation has the potential to be a carbon-negative process and utilize abundant minerals [95,96]. Nevertheless, the choice of this method will depend on a variety of factors, including the accessibility of suitable storage locations, the cost of the process, and the environmental risks associated with each method [90].

2.3.4. Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS)

BECCS, as another method of carbon storage, involves producing energy from biomass (such as plants) and capturing the CO2 emissions generated during the process [97,98]. The captured CO2 is then stored underground or underwater [15].
The advantages of BECCS include the potential for negative emissions, as the process removes CO2 from the atmosphere, and the generation of renewable energy. Additionally, BECCS can be implemented using existing infrastructure, such as power plants; however, there are also some disadvantages to consider [99,100]. The process of producing biomass requires land use, which can compete with other uses, like food production. Additionally, the technology is still in the early stages of development, and there are concerns about the cost and efficiency of the process [101].
BECCS can be used in combination with other storage methods to address the climate crisis issue, though further research is needed to fully evaluate its potential [102,103].

2.3.5. Direct Air Capture (DAC)

CO2 is captured in this method directly from the air using chemical processes and stored underground or underwater [15,103,104].
The advantages of DAC include the ability to capture CO2 from any source, not just industrial processes, making it a potentially valuable tool for reducing atmospheric CO2 concentrations [105]. Additionally, DAC can be used in combination with other carbon storage methods to achieve greater emission reductions [106]; however, there are disadvantages to consider. DAC is currently a very energy-intensive process, i.e., capturing and storing CO2 requires a large amount of energy [107]. Additionally, the technology is still in the early stages of development, and there are concerns about the cost and scalability of the process [108].
DAC can be used in combination with other storage methods to address the climate crisis issue, though further research is needed to fully evaluate its potential [105,108,109,110].

2.4. CCS Deployment Projects through Time

A chronological overview of the deployment of CCS projects has been provided in Table 1.

2.5. Leading Countries in the Field of CCS

Table 2 provides a list of countries that are considered leaders in the field of CCS, along with their storage methods and storage capacity.

2.6. Historical Data on CCS Capacity

Figure 3 shows the historical data on CCS between the years 2000 and 2023. The implementation rate is calculated by dividing the number of CCS projects implemented to develop a field by the total number of projects. The increasing trend suggests an improved general perception regarding CCS technology.
As for the outlook until 2050, there are varying predictions depending on the global efforts and policies undertaken to mitigate carbon emissions. It is expected that the implementation of CCS technology will significantly increase in the coming years to help combat climate change; however, due to the rapidly changing nature of environmental policies and technological advancements, it is challenging to provide precise future predictions [108].
Nonetheless, many experts and organizations are hopeful that CCS will play a crucial role in achieving global climate targets. It is anticipated that, by 2050, the implementation of CCS could rise to levels above 10 [108].
Table 3 tabulates the historical data provided in Figure 4, with a perspective on its application in petroleum engineering.
Moving towards 2050, the future of CCS in petroleum engineering is projected to be increasingly vital. As the industry strives for decarbonization and sustainable practices, CCS is expected to see further advancements and wider deployment. The integration of CCS with various reservoir management techniques, together with enhanced monitoring and innovative CO2 utilization methods, will contribute to maximizing oil recovery while minimizing the environmental impact. This comprehensive approach is anticipated to drive the development of efficient and sustainable petroleum engineering practices [108].

3. Typical Global CCS Science and Technology Infrastructures

Some typical global CCS science and technology infrastructures include the following:
  • CCS research centers: These infrastructures focus on conducting scientific research and technological development related to CCS. They typically have advanced laboratories equipped with state-of-the-art equipment for analyzing and testing various aspects of CCS technologies.
  • Large-scale CCS demonstration projects: These infrastructures are designed to showcase the viability and effectiveness of CCS technologies at a commercial scale. They involve capturing CO2 emissions from power plants or industrial facilities and storing them underground. These projects often involve collaborations between governments, research institutions, and industry partners.
  • CCS monitoring networks: These infrastructures consist of a network of sensors and monitoring stations that track the movement and behavior of stored CO2 underground. They provide real-time data on factors such as CO2 leakage, pressure changes, and geological stability to ensure the safety and effectiveness of CCS operations.
  • CCS simulation and modeling facilities: These infrastructures utilize advanced computer simulations and modeling techniques to predict the behavior and performance of CCS systems under different scenarios. They help optimize design parameters, assess potential risks, and guide decision making in the deployment of CCS technologies.
  • CO2 transport infrastructure: This infrastructure includes pipelines and transportation networks specifically designed for the efficient and safe transport of captured CO2 from capture sites to storage sites. It requires careful planning and engineering to ensure the integrity of the pipelines and minimize leakage during transportation.
  • Geological storage sites: These infrastructures consist of suitable underground formations where captured CO2 can be safely stored for long periods. They require detailed geological surveys and assessments to identify appropriate storage sites with characteristics such as permeability, porosity, and containment capacity.
  • CO2 utilization facilities: In addition to storage, some infrastructures focus on developing technologies for utilizing captured CO2 in various industrial processes. These facilities explore avenues such as converting CO2 into valuable products or using it for enhanced oil recovery.
Characteristics of these infrastructures include the following:
  • Interdisciplinary collaboration: CCS infrastructures often involve collaboration between scientists, engineers, policymakers, and industry experts to address the complex challenges associated with CCS technologies.
  • Long-term planning: Developing and maintaining these infrastructures require long-term planning and funding commitments due to the scale and complexity of CCS projects.
  • Regulatory compliance: CCS infrastructures need to adhere to strict environmental and safety regulations to ensure the protection of human health and the environment.
  • International cooperation: Many CCS infrastructures involve international collaboration and knowledge sharing to accelerate technology development and deployment globally.
  • Continuous improvement: CCS infrastructures focus on continuous improvement and innovation to enhance the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and environmental performance of CCS technologies [109,110].

4. Applicability of Carbon Storage Methods in the Oil and Gas Industry

Methods of carbon storage have been discussed in Section 2.3. This section focuses on the applicability of these methods in the oil and gas industry.
  • Geological storage: This method can be used to enhance oil and gas recovery, a process known as EOR [24]. By injecting CO2 into depleted reservoirs, the CO2 can help mobilize and extract remaining oil and gas reserves that would otherwise be difficult to recover. This process can also help reduce the carbon footprint of the oil and gas industry by storing CO2 underground [111].
  • Ocean storage: This method is not commonly used due to the environmental risks and technological challenges involved in ocean storage [54].
  • Mineral carbonation: This method is not commonly used due to the technological challenges and slow reaction rates involved in mineral carbonation [94].
  • BECCS: This method can be used to generate renewable energy and reduce the carbon footprint of oil and gas operations [112]. Biomass can be produced from different sources, including agricultural waste and dedicated energy crops, and the resulting energy can be used to power oil and gas operations [113].
  • DAC: This method is currently not widely used as it is a very energy-intensive process requiring large amounts of energy to capture and store CO2 [114,115].
Overall, the oil and gas industry can benefit from the use of carbon storage methods, such as geological storage and BECCS, to reduce its carbon footprint and enhance oil and gas recovery [116]; however, additional research is required to adequately assess the potential of this technique and develop new as well as innovative approaches to carbon storage in the industry [114,117].

5. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Carbon Storage Method

The main advantages of CCS are lowering greenhouse gas emissions and reducing the adverse effects of climate change [118]. CCS can assist in lowering the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere by capturing and storing CO2 emissions, which can help lower global warming [2,119].
CCS can also help improve the environmental performances of industrial processes by reducing their carbon footprints [120,121]. This can be particularly beneficial for industries that are highly dependent on fossil fuels, like the oil and gas industry, which is a significant contributor to global emissions, by reducing their carbon emissions and improving their sustainability [120].
CCS can assist in decreasing the industry’s reliance on fossil fuels and boost the accessibility of low-carbon energy sources, like renewable energy, by capturing and storing CO2 emissions [122,123]. The shift to a low-carbon economy can also be assisted by CCS [124]. CCS can also provide a bridge between traditional fossil fuel-based energy systems and renewable energy systems [125]. By capturing and storing CO2 emissions, CCS can pave the way for a more sustainable energy future [126,127].
However, there are also some challenges and concerns associated with CCS. One of the main challenges is the cost of implementing the technology, which can be high due to the need for specialized equipment and infrastructure [128]. Additionally, there are concerns about the safety and security of storing large volumes of CO2 underground or subsea, as well as the potential for CO2 leakage and environmental damage [129,130].
Despite these challenges, CCS has the potential to provide significant economic and social benefits [131]. For example, the implementation of CCS can create new job opportunities in the development and operation of the technology and its associated infrastructure [132]. Additionally, by reducing the carbon footprint of industrial processes, CCS can help improve the competitiveness of industries by reducing their operating costs and increasing their efficiency [133,134]. This can be particularly beneficial for large industries, such as oil and gas, which can benefit from improved environmental performance and increased profitability [135,136,137].

6. CCS and EOR

Water flooding has limitations, like the amount of water available, the cost of water treatment, and the potential for formation damage [138]. In this regard, CCS can be used as an alternative method to water flooding in oil reservoirs by injecting CO2 into the reservoir (Figure 4), with potential cost-saving and efficiency benefits [138,139,140].
The advantages of using CCS as an alternative to water flooding include the following:
  • Reduced water usage: CCS does not require large amounts of water, which can be a significant cost-saving method for oil producers in regions with water scarcity [141].
  • Improved oil recovery: Oil recovery could be improved with the injection of CO2 through a reduction in oil viscosity and an increase in reservoir pressure [142].
  • Reduced formation damage: The injection of CO2 is less likely to cause formation damage than water flooding, as CO2 does not directly react with the reservoir rock [143,144].
  • Reduced environmental impact: Climate change can be mitigated through CCS by lowering the amount of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere [2].
However, there are also challenges associated with using CCS as an alternative to water flooding, such as the following:
  • High costs: CCS involves significant upfront costs for capturing, compressing, and transporting CO2, making it more expensive than other water injection methods [145].
  • Logistics and infrastructure requirements: CCS requires significant infrastructure and transportation systems, which can make its implementation difficult in some locations [146].
  • Environmental risks: Any potential risks to the environment, such as CO2 leakage, must be carefully considered and mitigated [147].
Quantitative data can be used to demonstrate the potential benefits and challenges associated with using CCS for oil recovery. For example, it was shown that using CO2 for oil recovery can increase the amount of oil that can be extracted from a reservoir by up to 20%. In addition, CCS can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by up to 90% [148,149].
There are also quantitative data that show the challenges associated with using CCS for oil recovery [150]. A study conducted by the International Energy Agency found that the cost of implementing CCS for oil recovery can range from USD 30 to USD 70 per ton of CO2 captured [151]. The risk of CO2 leakage from storage sites can range from 0.01% to 1% per year [152].

6.1. Potential Use of CCS and EOR as a Combined Approach

The combined approach of CCS and EOR has the potential to significantly reduce carbon emissions and increase oil recovery in the petroleum industry [24]. With CCS, CO2 emissions from industrial processes are captured and fed into underground reservoirs. EOR, on the other hand, injects fluid into a reservoir to increase oil recovery [153].
By combining CCS and EOR, CO2 emissions can be captured and stored underground while also being used for EOR [154]. The injected CO2 can help mobilize and displace oil, increase recovery rates, and reduce the need for additional drilling [155]. This not only increases oil production but also reduces the carbon footprint of the petroleum industry by preventing emissions from being released into the atmosphere [134].
The potential benefits of this combined approach are numerous. It can help extend the lifetimes of mature oil fields, increase the amount of oil recovered from existing wells, and reduce the need for new drilling operations [156]. Additionally, it can provide a solution for reducing carbon emissions from industrial processes in the petroleum industry [98,157].
However, there are also challenges associated with this approach. The cost of implementing CCS and EOR technologies can be high, and there may be technical challenges associated with storage and injection processes [54,158]. There may also be regulatory barriers and public perception issues that need to be addressed [159].

6.2. Economic Feasibility of CCS and EOR

The economic feasibility of CCS and EOR technologies is an important consideration for the petroleum industry [160]. These technologies can be costly to implement, and their economic viability depends on a variety of factors, including the cost of the technology, the price of oil, and the regulatory environment [101].
Depending on the individual technology being used and the geological features of the reservoir, the cost of CCS and EOR technologies can vary [161]. CCS technologies involve capturing, transporting, and storing CO2, which can be expensive [162]. EOR technologies require injecting fluids into a reservoir, which can also be costly. The cost of these technologies may be offset by the increased oil recovery rates and potential revenue from the sale of captured CO2 for use in other industries [24].
The potential benefits of CCS and EOR technologies are numerous. EOR technologies can increase the amount of oil that can be recovered from a reservoir, which can lead to increased revenue for petroleum companies [24,163]. CCS technologies can help reduce carbon emissions and allow petroleum companies to comply with regulations and avoid potential penalties [24]. Additionally, the captured CO2 can be sold to other industries for use in enhanced oil recovery, the carbonation of concrete, or other industrial processes [164].
The economic feasibility of CCS and EOR technologies also depends on the price of oil. When the price of oil is high, the economic benefits of EOR technologies can be significant [165]; however, when the price of oil is low, the economic feasibility of EOR technologies may be more challenging. CCS technologies, on the other hand, may be more economically feasible in the long term, as regulations and carbon pricing mechanisms are implemented [166].
The regulatory environment is also an important consideration for the economic feasibility of CCS and EOR technologies [54]. Government incentives, such as tax credits and grants, can help offset the cost of implementing these technologies. Additionally, regulations that limit carbon emissions can create a market for captured CO2, making it more economically feasible for petroleum companies to invest in CCS technologies [167].

6.3. Technical Challenges and Opportunities Associated with CCS and EOR

CCS and EOR are two related technologies that offer opportunities and challenges for the petroleum industry [105]. CCS involves removing CO2 from industrial sources and storing it in geological formations such as coal seams, deep saline deposits, and depleted oil and gas reservoirs [58,168]. EOR involves injecting CO2 into oil reservoirs to enhance oil recovery by reducing oil’s viscosity and increasing its mobility [153].
One of the technical challenges associated with CCS and EOR is the design and construction of storage reservoirs. The reservoirs must be able to contain large volumes of CO2 and maintain the pressure required to keep CO2 in a liquid or supercritical state [169]. The reservoirs must also be located in areas that are safe and accessible for injection operations [170].
To address these challenges, researchers are exploring novel injection techniques, such as foam injection, which can improve the mobility of CO2 in the reservoir and reduce the risk of CO2 breakthrough [171]. Other techniques include the use of surfactants and polymers to improve the sweep efficiency of CO2 and the use of nanoparticles to enhance the wettability of the reservoir rock [156].
Foam injection is a technique that involves injecting CO2 mixed with a foaming agent into the reservoir [172]. The foaming agent creates bubbles in the CO2 that increase the viscosity of the mixture and improve its mobility in the reservoir [173]. This technique has been shown to increase the amount of CO2 that can be injected into the reservoir and reduce the risk of CO2 breakthrough [174].
Surfactants and polymers are chemicals that can be added to the CO2 injection stream to improve its sweep efficiency [175]. Surfactants reduce the surface tension between the CO2 and fluids within a reservoir rock, allowing the CO2 to flow more easily through the rock pores [176]. Polymers can increase the viscosity of the CO2 plume, helping it to sweep more effectively through the reservoir [177]. These techniques have been shown to increase the amount of oil that can be recovered from the reservoir and improve the overall efficiency of EOR operations [178,179].
Nanoparticles are tiny particles that can be added to the CO2 injection stream to enhance the wettability of the reservoir rock [180]. By modifying the surface properties of the rock, nanoparticles can improve the contact angle between the CO2 and oil, leading to an increase in oil recovery rates [181]. This technique is still in the early stages of development, but initial results have been promising [182,183].
Overall, these techniques represent state-of-the-art solutions for improving the efficacy of CCS and EOR operations [184]. While each technique has its unique advantages and limitations, they all have the potential to significantly increase the amount of oil that can be recovered from existing reservoirs while reducing greenhouse gas emissions [177].
Another technical challenge is the management of safety and security in the CCS process [158]. CO2 is a greenhouse gas and can pose a risk to human health if released in large quantities [119]. Therefore, it is important to ensure the safe and secure storage of CO2 in reservoirs [1]. This involves monitoring reservoirs for leaks, developing emergency response plans, and implementing security measures to prevent the intentional or accidental release of CO2 [185].

6.4. Environmental Impacts of CCS and EOR

Technologies like CCS and EOR have the potential to lower greenhouse gas emissions while also enhancing air quality [186,187]. CCS can lessen the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions discharged into the atmosphere by capturing and storing CO2 emissions from industrial sources, hence preventing climate change [188,189]. EOR, on the other hand, can reduce the need for new oil exploration and production, which can reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with these activities [190].
CCS and EOR can improve air quality by lowering harmful pollutants like sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter, in addition to lowering greenhouse gas emissions [187]. These pollutants can have significant impacts on human health and the environment, and their reduction can lead to improved air quality and public health [191].
However, there are also potential environmental impacts associated with CCS and EOR technologies. For example, injecting large amounts of CO2 into a reservoir can change the physical and chemical properties of a reservoir’s rocks, affecting local ecosystems [5]. Additionally, the transport and storage of CO2 may pose risks to the environment and human health if not properly managed [192].
The solutions for mitigating the potential environmental impact of CO2 injection include conducting thorough risk assessments before the process, analyzing geological properties, and detecting potential leakage pathways as well as ecosystem impacts [193]. Ongoing monitoring programs can also be implemented to promptly address any environmental impacts. Additionally, using enhanced oil recovery techniques may reduce the amount of CO2 for underground storage [194].
CO2 can be transported via pipelines or ships with proper safety measures in place. Geological formations can be used for CO2 storage, but continuous monitoring is required to ensure safety [195]. Carbon capture and storage technologies can also be implemented to minimize CO2 transport and storage needs [196].
To integrate CCS and EOR technologies in a safe and environmentally responsible manner, industry experts and researchers are developing best practices and standards [197]. This entails carrying out exhaustive environmental impact studies, implementing monitoring as well as mitigation measures, and interacting with local stakeholders as well as communities to make sure their concerns are heard and taken seriously [198].

6.5. Regulatory and Policy Landscape Surrounding CCS and EOR

The regulatory and policy landscape surrounding CCS and EOR technologies is complex and varies widely depending on the country and region [166]; however, many governments around the world have implemented incentives and regulations aimed at promoting the adoption of these technologies [19].
The implementation of carbon pricing mechanisms, such as carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems, is one of the most important incentives for CCS and EOR. These policies impose a cost on carbon emissions, encouraging businesses to cut emissions and spend money on low-carbon technology like CCS and EOR [199]. Governments occasionally offer additional financial incentives to businesses that invest in this technology, such as tax credits, grants, or loan guarantees [200].
In addition to incentives, many governments have also implemented regulations aimed at promoting the adoption of CCS and EOR [201]. For instance, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the US has enacted regulations, under the Clean Air Act, mandating the incorporation of CCS technology into new power plants to lower carbon emissions. Similarly, the European Union has established regulations, under the Emissions Trading System, that require large emitters to reduce their emissions or purchase emission credits [202].
Other governments have implemented policies aimed at promoting the development of CCS and EOR infrastructure [203]. For example, the United Kingdom has established a network of CO2 pipelines and storage sites, and Canada has implemented regulations that require oil producers to reduce their emissions and invest in CCS and EOR technologies [204,205].

6.6. Role of Public Perception and Stakeholder Engagement in the Successful Implementation of CCS and EOR

Public perception and stakeholder engagement play crucial roles in the successful implementation of CCS and EOR technologies [206]. These innovations could boost oil recovery and decrease greenhouse gas emissions, but they also face significant challenges related to public perception, stakeholder engagement, and social acceptance [206,207]. Many people are skeptical of these technologies and view them as risky or unnecessary. This skepticism can be attributed to a lack of understanding of how these technologies work, as well as concerns about their safety and potential environmental impacts. For example, some people may be concerned about the possibility of CO2 leaks from storage reservoirs or the impact of injecting chemicals into oil reservoirs [208,209].
CO2 leaks from storage reservoirs can pose a risk to both human health and the environment [185]. Exposure to high levels of CO2 can cause asphyxiation and other health problems, and if a leak were to occur in an area with a high population density the consequences could be catastrophic [210,211]. In addition, the emission of a large amount of CO2 into the atmosphere can contribute to climate change [212] and compromise the time as well as capital invested in CCS projects [213].
To mitigate these risks, there are several strategies that can be employed [214]. First and foremost, it is important to select storage sites that are geologically stable and secure, with a low risk of leaks [214,215]. Storage sites should also be monitored regularly to detect any leaks early and address them quickly [216]. Furthermore, emergency response plans must be in place to ensure a rapid and effective response in the event of a leak [217].
The injection of chemicals into oil reservoirs can also pose risks, particularly in terms of the potential contamination of groundwater or the release of harmful substances into the environment [218,219]. To mitigate these risks, it’s important to use chemicals that are proven to be safe and have a low risk of causing harm [220]. Additionally, injection operations should be monitored closely to detect any leaks or incidents as early as possible. Proper well construction and maintenance can also help to prevent leaks or accidents [221].
To address these concerns and increase public acceptance of CCS and EOR technologies, it is important to engage stakeholders and communicate the benefits and risks of these technologies clearly and transparently [222]. This includes engaging with communities near storage and injection sites, as well as with environmental and community groups, industry representatives, and government agencies [223].
Stakeholder engagement should be a collaborative process that involves listening to and addressing concerns, sharing information about the benefits and risks of these technologies, and involving stakeholders in the decision-making process [224]. This can help to build trust and increase public acceptance of CCS and EOR technologies [223].
In addition to public perception and stakeholder engagement, there are also technical and economic challenges associated with the implementation of CCS and EOR technologies [127,225]. These include the design and construction of storage and injection sites, the cost of implementing these technologies, and the availability of suitable geologic formations for storage and injection [226].

6.7. Application of CCS and EOR in Different Geological Settings

CCS and EOR technologies have the potential to be applied in a variety of geological settings, including unconventional reservoirs and offshore fields [227]; however, there are some unique challenges associated with applying these technologies in these settings [228].
Unconventional reservoirs, such as shale gas and tight oil formations, have lower permeability and porosity than conventional reservoirs, which can make it more difficult to inject CO2 and recover oil [229,230]. In addition, the geology of these formations is often more complex, which can make it more difficult to predict the behavior of injected fluids [231].
Despite these challenges, there is significant potential for CCS and EOR in unconventional reservoirs. For example, CO2 injection can help to enhance the recovery of oil and gas from these formations, which can increase production and reduce the need for new wells [24]. In addition, CCS can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions from unconventional oil and gas production, which is a significant source of emissions [189].
Offshore fields also present unique challenges for CCS and EOR. One of the main challenges is the distance between an injection site and a production platform, which can make it more difficult and expensive to transport CO2 and other fluids [232]. In addition, the harsh environment of offshore fields can make it more difficult to design and construct storage and injection facilities [233].
Despite these challenges, there is also significant potential for CCS and EOR in offshore fields [234]. For example, offshore fields often have significant CO2 storage capacity, which can help to reduce emissions from offshore oil and gas production [235]. In addition, EOR can help increase oil recovery from offshore fields, hence reducing the need for new wells [236].

6.8. Integration of CCS and EOR with Other Renewable Energy Sources

The integration of carbon CCS and EOR technologies with other renewable energy sources has the potential to create a more sustainable energy system [237,238]. Together, these technologies can reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel production and increase the use of wind and solar as renewable sources of energy [239].
One way to integrate CCS and EOR with renewable energy sources is to use CO2 captured from power plants or industrial processes for EOR [24]. This process involves injecting CO2 into oil reservoirs to improve oil recovery while also storing it underground [240]. By using CO2 from renewable energy sources, such as biogas or biomass, it is possible to create a closed-loop system that reduces greenhouse gas emissions and increases oil production [241].
Another way to integrate CCS and EOR with renewable energy sources is to use renewable energy to power CCS and EOR operations [242]. For example, wind and solar power can be used to generate electricity to power CO2 capture and compression, as well as EOR operations [243,244]. This can help to reduce the carbon footprints of these operations and make them more sustainable in the long term [245].
Additionally, the integration of CCS and EOR with other renewable energy sources, such as geothermal and hydroelectric power, is a possibility [246]. For example, geothermal power can be used to generate steam for EOR operations, while hydroelectric power can be used to power CO2 capture and compression [90]. These linkages could contribute to the development of a more environmentally friendly energy system that uses more renewable energy sources and emits less greenhouse gases [247].

7. Technical and Operational Challenges of CCS

The implementation of CCS technology for reducing CO2 emissions in the petroleum industry presents several technical and operational challenges [189,248]. These challenges include the design and construction of underground and subsea storage reservoirs, the collection and compression of CO2 gas, and the management of safety as well as security in the CCS process [249,250].
One of the primary technical challenges in CCS is the design and construction of underground and subsea storage reservoirs [189]. These reservoirs must be constructed to withstand the high pressures and temperatures associated with the storage of CO2 over long periods [59,251]. In addition, the location and geology of the reservoir must be carefully considered to ensure that the CO2 is safely and securely stored and that there is no risk of leakage or other environmental impacts [5].
Another technical challenge associated with CCS is the collection and compression of CO2 gas [158]. The captured CO2 must be compressed to a high pressure to facilitate transport to the storage site, which requires significant energy and infrastructure [4]. The compression process also generates heat, which must be managed to prevent damage to the equipment and ensure the safe storage of CO2 [252].
In addition to the technical challenges, there are also several operational challenges associated with CCS [253]. These include the management of safety and security during the storage process, as well as the development of regulatory frameworks to ensure the safe and effective management of the storage site. There is also a need for ongoing monitoring and maintenance of the storage site to ensure that the CO2 is safely and securely stored over the long term [254,255].
To address common challenges in CCS, there are several potential solutions and best practices that can be implemented, as follows [256,257]:
  • High costs: One potential solution to the high cost of CCS is to improve the efficiency of the capture process. This can be achieved by using advanced technologies, such as solvent-based absorption, membrane separation, or solid sorbent capture [258]. Another approach is exploring alternative funding models, such as public–private partnerships or carbon pricing mechanisms, to reduce the financial burden on individual companies [259].
  • Regulatory frameworks: The development of clear and consistent regulatory frameworks is essential for the successful implementation of CCS projects [260]. Governments can facilitate this process by establishing a legal and regulatory framework that provides certainty and stability for investors and project developers [261]. This includes setting clear emission reduction targets, establishing a regulatory framework for CO2 storage, and creating a system for tracking and verifying carbon emissions [262].
  • Public acceptance: One of the biggest challenges facing CCS is public acceptance. To overcome this challenge it is important to engage with local communities and stakeholders early in the project development process [263]. This includes providing clear information about the benefits and risks of CCS, consulting with local communities on project design as well as implementation, and establishing effective communication channels to address concerns and feedback [264].
  • Infrastructure: The development of CCS infrastructure is essential for the successful implementation of large-scale projects [265]. This includes the construction of pipelines and storage facilities, as well as the development of transportation networks to move captured CO2 from capture sites to storage sites [265,266]. To overcome this challenge, it is important to establish partnerships between government, industry, and academia to develop innovative solutions for infrastructure development [267].
  • Integration with renewable energy: CCS can play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel-based power generation [268]; however, it is important to integrate CCS with renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, to ensure a sustainable energy mix [269,270]. This can be achieved by developing integrated energy systems that combine renewable energy with CCS technology, such as power-to-gas or power-to-liquid systems [271].

8. Environmental Impacts of CCS

While CCS can alleviate the effects of climate change, it is important to study its environmental effects and potential risks from economic, social, and engineering perspectives [272].
The potential for CO2 leakage from storage sites, which could cause soil and water contamination, is one of the main environmental problems connected to CCS [273]; however, studies have shown that the risk of CO2 leakage is low, as long as the storage sites are carefully selected and monitored [274]. Additionally, CCS can have positive environmental effects by reducing CO2 emissions and mitigating the impact of climate change [2].
Economically speaking, CCS is an expensive technology since it necessitates substantial infrastructure and equipment investments. The price of CCS may also differ based on the location of the storage facility and the type of industry [165]; however, the economic benefits of CCS may outweigh the costs, as it can reduce the cost of compliance with emission regulations and contribute to the development of new technologies as well as job opportunities [197,275].
CCS may also have social impacts, such as the displacement of local communities due to the selection of storage sites. Additionally, there may be concerns about the safety of CCS and its potential impact on public health [276]; however, these concerns can be addressed through community engagement, education, and transparency in decision-making processes [277].
From an engineering perspective, CCS requires careful planning and design to ensure the safe and efficient storage of CO2. This includes the selection of suitable storage sites, the design of injection and monitoring systems, and the development of contingency plans for potential leaks or accidents. Additionally, CCS can benefit from advances in technology and research in areas such as materials science, geophysics, and computer modeling [249].

9. Major Oil and Gas Companies’ Commitments to Carbon Neutrality

Many major oil and gas companies have made commitments to carbon neutrality in recent years. These commitments show that people are realizing the importance of combatting climate change and cutting greenhouse gas emissions. While the specific details and timelines vary among companies, the general objective is to achieve net-zero carbon emissions by a certain date.
Below are some examples of major oil and gas companies and their commitments to carbon neutrality:
  • BP: BP declared their intention to go net-zero by 2050 or earlier in August 2020. The company aims to achieve this by reducing its emissions, investing in low-carbon technologies, and transitioning towards renewable energy sources.
  • Shell: By 2050, Shell intends to operate an energy company with zero emissions. The company plans to achieve this goal through a combination of reducing its emissions, providing low-carbon energy solutions to customers, and investing in nature-based carbon offsets.
  • Total Energies: Total Energies aims to achieve carbon neutrality across its operations and energy products by 2050. The company plans to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, increase investments in renewable energy, and develop low-carbon solutions.
  • Chevron: Chevron has committed to reducing the carbon intensity of its operations and increasing investments in renewable and lower-carbon technologies. While the company has not set a specific timeline for achieving carbon neutrality, it is taking steps to improve its environmental performance.
  • Equinor: By the year 2050, Equinor has planned to be a net-zero energy business. The company plans to reduce emissions from its operations, develop renewable energy projects, and invest in carbon capture and storage technologies.
  • Eni: Eni has announced to be an emissions-free enterprise by the year 2050. The company plans to achieve this by reducing the carbon intensity of its operations, increasing investments in renewable energy, and developing CCS technologies. Eni also aims to increase its production of biofuels and promote circular economy initiatives [278].

10. Further Research Recommendations

Regarding CCS and EOR, the following research areas are yet to be explored and unfolded:
  • The investigation of the long-term behavior and storage stability of CO2 in geological reservoirs: Although CCS has been practiced for several decades, there is still a need for continued research on the long-term behavior and storage stability of CO2 in geological reservoirs, particularly for demonstrating sites that are currently active or under development [5,279].
  • The optimization of injection and monitoring strategies for enhanced oil recovery: There is a need to optimize injection and monitoring strategies to reduce the costs and environmental impacts of EOR operations [280,281]. In particular, more research is needed on the optimization of CO2 injection and monitoring strategies [282].
  • The assessment of the environmental impact of CCS and EOR: While CCS and EOR can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, more comprehensive assessments of their environmental impact are required [283]. This includes evaluating the potential risks and impacts of CO2 leakage from storage sites, as well as the potential impacts of EOR operations on soil, water, and air quality [193,284].
  • The development of alternative storage and conversion technologies: There is a need for continued research on alternative storage and conversion technologies, such as mineral carbonation and direct air capture [285].

11. Conclusions

CCS has been proven to be an essential technology in the oil and gas industry to lower greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, the simultaneous implementation of CCS and EOR could enhance oil production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
To adopt CCS as a safe and effective technology, there must be clear and uniform regulatory criteria. This necessitates requirements for CCS facility design, construction, operation, and shutdown, as well as standards related to the monitoring and verification of CO2 storage. The development of appropriate policy frameworks is also essential to support CCS deployment in the oil and gas industry. This includes policies related to carbon pricing, emission reduction targets, and other regulatory measures to incentivize the deployment of CCS technology.
Another issue related to the deployment of a CCS project is the high cost of operation, which is a significant barrier to its widespread adoption in the oil and gas industry. Governments and other stakeholders can address this problem by offering financial incentives to support CCS deployments, such as tax credits, grants, and other kinds of financial assistance to help defray the costs of CCS deployment.
The successful implementation of CCS technology in the oil and gas industry depends on public awareness and acceptance. This includes promoting the advantages and disadvantages of CCS and collaborating with stakeholders to allay worries and dispel misconceptions about the technology. Overall, the role of CCS in reducing global warming and promoting sustainable development cannot be underestimated, hence further research into and funding of this technology are crucial to attaining these objectives.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, S.Y. and Y.K.; methodology, S.Y. and Y.K.; investigation, S.Y.; writing—original draft preparation, S.Y. and Y.K.; writing—review and editing, S.Y., Y.K., A.S. and M.B.; supervision, A.S. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.


The authors thank their colleagues from the Amirkabir University of Technology for providing insight and expertise. They also appreciate Hakim Sabzevari University for supporting this research.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Zhang, Z.; Huisingh, D. Carbon dioxide storage schemes: Technology, assessment, and deployment. J. Clean. Prod. 2017, 142, 1055–1064. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  2. Gambhir, A.; Tavoni, M. Direct Air Carbon Capture and Sequestration: How It Works and How It Could Contribute to Climate-Change Mitigation. One Earth 2019, 1, 405–409. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  3. Tan, Y.; Nookuea, W.; Li, H.; Thorin, E.; Yan, J. Property impacts on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) processes: A review. Energy Convers. Manag. 2016, 118, 204–222. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Michaelides, E.E. Thermodynamic analysis and power requirements of CO2 capture, transportation, and storage in the ocean. Energy 2021, 230, 120804. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Aminu, M.D.; Nabavi, S.A.; Rochelle, C.A.; Manovic, V. A review of developments in carbon dioxide storage. Appl. Energy 2017, 208, 1389–1419. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Ajayi, T.; Gomes, J.S.; Bera, A. A review of CO2 storage in geological formations emphasizing modeling, monitoring, and capacity estimation approaches. Pet. Sci. 2019, 16, 1028–1063. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Lau, H.C.; Ramakrishna, S.; Zhang, K.; Radhamani, A.V. The Role of Carbon Capture and Storage in the Energy Transition. Energy Fuels 2021, 35, 7364–7386. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Zou, C.; Xue, H.; Xiong, B.; Zhang, G.; Pan, S.; Jia, C.; Wang, Y.; Ma, F.; Sun, Q.; Guan, C.; et al. Connotation, Innovation and Vision of “Carbon Neutrality”. Nat. Gas Ind. B 2021, 8, 523–537. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Gilmore, T.; Bonneville, A.; Sullivan, C.; Kelley, M.; Appriou, D.; Vermeul, V.; White, S.; Zhang, F.; Bjornstad, B.; Cornet, F.; et al. Characterization and Design of the FutureGen 2.0 Carbon Storage Site. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 2016, 53, 1–10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  10. Suicmez, V.S. Feasibility study for carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS) in the Danish North Sea. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng. 2019, 68, 102924. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Lei, H.; Yang, S.; Zu, L.; Wang, Z.; Li, Y. Oil recovery performance and CO2 storage potential of CO2 water-alternating-gas injection after continuous CO2 injection in a multilayer formation. Energy Fuels 2016, 30, 8922–8931. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  12. Eldardiry, H.; Habib, E. Carbon Capture and Sequestration in Power Generation: Review of Impacts and Opportunities for Water Sustainability. Energy. Sustain. Soc. 2018, 8, 1–15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. Lee, S.-Y.; Park, S.-J. A review on solid adsorbents for carbon dioxide capture. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 2015, 23, 1–11. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. McLaughlin, H.; Littlefield, A.A.; Menefee, M.; Kinzer, A.; Hull, T.; Sovacool, B.K.; Bazilian, M.D.; Kim, J.; Griffiths, S. Carbon capture utilization and storage in review: Sociotechnical implications for a carbon reliant world. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2023, 177, 113215. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. Luo, J.; Xie, Y.; Hou, M.Z.; Xiong, Y.; Wu, X.; Lüddeke, C.T.; Huang, L. Advances in subsea carbon dioxide utilization and storage. Energy Rev. 2023, 2, 100016. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. Kapitonov, I.A. Development of low-carbon economy as the base of sustainable improvement of energy security. Environ. Dev. Sustain. 2020, 23, 3077–3096. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  17. Prasad, S.; Venkatramanan, V.; Singh, A. Renewable Energy for a Low-Carbon Future: Policy Perspectives BT—Sustainable Bioeconomy: Pathways to Sustainable Development Goals; Venkatramanan, V., Shah, S., Prasad, R., Eds.; Springer: Singapore, 2021; pp. 267–284. ISBN 978-981-15-7321-7. [Google Scholar]
  18. Seixas, J.; Fortes, P.; Dias, L.; Carneiro, J.; Boavida, D.; Aguiar, R.; Marques, F.; Fernandes, V.; Helseth, J.; Ciesielska, J.; et al. CO2 Capture and Storage in Portugal A Bridge to A Low Carbon Economy; Universidade Nova de Lisboa: Lisbon, Spain, 2015. [Google Scholar]
  19. Romasheva, N.; Ilinova, A. CCS Projects: How Regulatory Framework Influences Their Deployment. Resources 2019, 8, 181. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Chen, S.; Liu, J.; Zhang, Q.; Teng, F.; McLellan, B.C. A critical review on deployment planning and risk analysis of carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) toward carbon neutrality. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2022, 167, 112537. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Jiang, K.; Ashworth, P.; Zhang, S.; Liang, X.; Sun, Y.; Angus, D. China’s carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) policy: A critical review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2019, 119, 109601. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Moomaw, W.R.; Law, B.E.; Goetz, S.J. Focus on the role of forests and soils in meeting climate change mitigation goals: Summary. Environ. Res. Lett. 2020, 15, 045009. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Cheng, F.; Small, A.A.; Colosi, L.M. The levelized cost of negative CO2 emissions from thermochemical conversion of biomass coupled with carbon capture and storage. Energy Convers. Manag. 2021, 237, 114115. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  24. Adu, E.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, D. Current situation of carbon dioxide capture, storage, and enhanced oil recovery in the oil and gas industry. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 2019, 97, 1048–1076. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  25. Xu, Z.; Smyth, C.E.; Lemprière, T.C.; Rampley, G.J.; Kurz, W.A. Climate change mitigation strategies in the forest sector: Biophysical impacts and economic implications in British Columbia, Canada. Mitig. Adapt. Strat. Glob. Chang. 2017, 23, 257–290. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Budinis, S.; Krevor, S.; Mac Dowell, N.; Brandon, N.; Hawkes, A. An assessment of CCS costs, barriers and potential. Energy Strat. Rev. 2018, 22, 61–81. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  27. Bashti, S.; Sadeghi, A.; McCoy, S.; Mahinpey, N. Could the Post-SAGD Heat Recovery Supply the Direct Air CO2 Capture (DAC) Energy in a Net Negative Carbon Emission Environment? In Proceedings of the SPE Canadian Energy Technology Conference, Calgary, AB, Canada, 27–30 November 2023; p. D011S007R003. [Google Scholar]
  28. Stephanie, N.E.M. The Transition of Fossil Fuel As a Source of Energy to Renewable Energy. Ph.D. Thesis, Centria University of Applied Science, Kokkola, Finland, 2022. [Google Scholar]
  29. Yoro, K.O.; Daramola, M.O. CO2 Emission Sources, Greenhouse Gases, and the Global Warming Effect. In Advances in Carbon Capture; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2020; pp. 3–28. [Google Scholar]
  30. Mikhaylov, A.; Moiseev, N.; Aleshin, K.; Burkhardt, T. Global climate change and greenhouse effect. Entrep. Sustain. Issues 2020, 7, 2897–2913. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  31. Gabrielli, P.; Gazzani, M.; Mazzotti, M. The role of carbon capture and utilization, carbon capture and storage, and biomass to enable a net-zero-CO2 emissions chemical industry. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2020, 59, 7033–7045. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  32. Braun, C. Not in My Backyard: CCS Sites and Public Perception of CCS. Risk Anal. 2017, 37, 2264–2275. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Bai, Y.; Liu, J.; Liu, S.; Xia, Z.; Chen, Y.; Liang, G.; Shen, Y. Experimental Comparative Investigation of Hot Solvent/Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage in Oil Sand Reservoirs. ACS Omega 2021, 6, 22333–22343. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Xu, J.; Chen, Z.; Dong, X.; Zhou, W. Effects of Lean Zones on Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Performance. Energies 2017, 10, 471. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  35. Li, S.; Han, R.; Wang, P.; Cao, Z.; Li, Z.; Ren, G. Experimental investigation of innovative superheated vapor extraction technique in heavy oil reservoirs: A two-dimensional visual analysis. Energy 2021, 238, 121882. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  36. Mosleh, M.H.; Sedighi, M.; Babaei, M.; Turner, M. Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. In Managing Global Warming; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2019; pp. 487–500. [Google Scholar]
  37. Soiket, M.; Oni, A.; Kumar, A. The development of a process simulation model for energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of a vapor solvent-based oil sands extraction and recovery process. Energy 2019, 173, 799–808. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  38. Dong, X.; Liu, H.; Chen, Z.; Wu, K.; Lu, N.; Zhang, Q. Enhanced oil recovery techniques for heavy oil and oilsands reservoirs after steam injection. Appl. Energy 2019, 239, 1190–1211. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  39. Kumar, N.; Sampaio, M.A.; Ojha, K.; Hoteit, H.; Mandal, A. Fundamental Aspects, Mechanisms and Emerging Possibilities of CO2 Miscible Flooding in Enhanced Oil Recovery: A Review. Fuel 2022, 330, 125633. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  40. Karmaker, A.K.; Rahman, M.M.; Hossain, M.A.; Ahmed, M.R. Exploration and corrective measures of greenhouse gas emission from fossil fuel power stations for Bangladesh. J. Clean. Prod. 2020, 244, 118645. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  41. Middleton, R.S.; Yaw, S. The cost of getting CCS wrong: Uncertainty, infrastructure design, and stranded CO2. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control. 2018, 70, 1–11. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  42. Kheirinik, M.; Ahmed, S.; Rahmanian, N. Comparative Techno-Economic Analysis of Carbon Capture Processes: Pre-Combustion, Post-Combustion, and Oxy-Fuel Combustion Operations. Sustainability 2021, 13, 13567. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  43. De Guido, G.; Compagnoni, M.; Pellegrini, L.A.; Rossetti, I. Mature versus emerging technologies for CO2 capture in power plants: Key open issues in post-combustion amine scrubbing and in chemical looping combustion. Front. Chem. Sci. Eng. 2018, 12, 315–325. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  44. Ahmed, A.S.; Rahman, M.R.; Bakri, M.K.B. A Review Based on Low-and High-Stream Global Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technology and Implementation Strategy. J. Appl. Sci. Process Eng. 2021, 8, 722–737. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  45. Gerbelová, H.; van der Spek, M.; Schakel, W. Feasibility Assessment of CO2 Capture Retrofitted to an Existing Cement Plant: Post-combustion vs. Oxy-fuel Combustion Technology. Energy Procedia 2017, 114, 6141–6149. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  46. Wang, Y.; Zhao, L.; Otto, A.; Robinius, M.; Stolten, D. A Review of Post-combustion CO2 Capture Technologies from Coal-fired Power Plants. Energy Procedia 2017, 114, 650–665. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  47. Qureshi, F.; Yusuf, M.; Kamyab, H.; Vo, D.-V.N.; Chelliapan, S.; Joo, S.-W.; Vasseghian, Y. Latest eco-friendly avenues on hydrogen production towards a circular bioeconomy: Currents challenges, innovative insights, and future perspectives. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2022, 168, 112916. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  48. Cannone, S.F.; Lanzini, A.; Santarelli, M. A review on CO2 capture technologies with focus on CO2-enhanced methane recovery from hydrates. Energies 2021, 14, 387. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  49. Negri, V.; Vazquez, D.; Pardo-Sales, M.; Guimera, R.; Guillén-Gosálbez, G. Bayesian symbolic learning to build analytical correlations from rigorous process simulations: Application to CO2 capture technologies. ACS Omega 2022, 7, 41147–41164. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. Shawuti, S.; Difiglio, C.; Esmaeilialiabadi, D.; Gülgün, M.A.; Öncel, Ç.; Yeşilyurt, S. Using Natural Gas as an Environmentally Sustainable Power Source with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells; Sabanci University: Istanbul, Turkey, 2018. [Google Scholar]
  51. Singh, R.P.; Singh, S.S.S. Cost-Effective Technologies Used to Curb Air Pollution. In Air Pollution: Sources, Impacts and Controls; CAB International Wallingford: Oxfordshire, UK, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  52. Moreno Aguado, B. Carbon Capture and Storage Technology’s Role in CO2 Emissions Reduction and the Energy Cost; Universitat de Barcelona: Barcelona, Spain, 2023. [Google Scholar]
  53. Younas, M.; Rezakazemi, M.; Daud, M.; Wazir, M.B.; Ahmad, S.; Ullah, N.; Inamuddin; Ramakrishna, S. Recent progress and remaining challenges in post-combustion CO2 capture using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 2020, 80, 100849. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  54. Wilberforce, T.; Olabi, A.; Sayed, E.T.; Elsaid, K.; Abdelkareem, M.A. Progress in carbon capture technologies. Sci. Total Environ. 2021, 761, 143203. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  55. Wang, D.; Zhang, Y.D.; Adu, E.; Yang, J.P.; Shen, Q.W.; Tian, L.; Wu, L. Influence of Dense Phase Co2 Pipeline Transportation Parameters. Int. J. Heat Technol. 2016, 34, 479–484. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  56. Geske, J.; Berghout, N.; Broek, M.v.D. Cost-effective balance between CO2 vessel and pipeline transport. Part I—Impact of optimally sized vessels and fleets. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control. 2015, 36, 175–188. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  57. Wei, Y.-M.; Li, X.-Y.; Liu, L.-C.; Kang, J.-N.; Yu, B.-Y. A cost-effective and reliable pipelines layout of carbon capture and storage for achieving China’s carbon neutrality target. J. Clean. Prod. 2022, 79, 134651. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  58. Tomić, L.; Karović-Maričić, V.; Danilović, D.; Crnogorac, M. Criteria for CO2 storage in geological formations. Podzemn. Rad. 2018, 32, 61–74. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  59. Fawad, M.; Mondol, N.H. Monitoring geological storage of CO2: A new approach. Sci. Rep. 2021, 11, 5942. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  60. Abdel-Shafy, H.I.; Kamel, A.H. Groundwater in Egypt issue: Resources, location, amount, contamination, protection, renewal, future overview. Egypt J. Chem. 2016, 59, 321–362. [Google Scholar]
  61. Amirthan, T.; Perera, M. Underground hydrogen storage in Australia: A review on the feasibility of geological sites. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2023, 48, 4300–4328. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  62. Omotilewa, O.J.; Panja, P.; Vega-Ortiz, C.; McLennan, J. Evaluation of enhanced coalbed methane recovery and carbon dioxide sequestration potential in high volatile bituminous coal. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng. 2021, 91, 103979. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  63. Arrieta, J.M.; Mayol, E.; Hansman, R.L.; Herndl, G.J.; Dittmar, T.; Duarte, C.M. Dilution limits dissolved organic carbon utilization in the deep ocean. Science 2015, 348, 331–333. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  64. Woodall, C.M.; McQueen, N.; Pilorgé, H.; Wilcox, J. Cover Picture: Utilization of mineral carbonation products: Current state and potential (Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol 6/2019). Greenh. Gases Sci. Technol. 2019, 9, 1096–1113. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  65. Neeraj; Yadav, S. Carbon storage by mineral carbonation and industrial applications of CO2. Mater. Sci. Energy Technol. 2020, 3, 494–500. [Google Scholar]
  66. Mishra, A.; Kumar, M.; Medhi, K.; Thakur, I.S. Biomass Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS). In Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2020; pp. 399–427. [Google Scholar]
  67. McQueen, N.; Psarras, P.; Pilorgé, H.; Liguori, S.; He, J.; Yuan, M.; Woodall, C.M.; Kian, K.; Pierpoint, L.; Jurewicz, J.; et al. Cost Analysis of Direct Air Capture and Sequestration Coupled to Low-Carbon Thermal Energy in the United States. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2020, 54, 7542–7551. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  68. Thamo, T.; Pannell, D.J. Challenges in developing effective policy for soil carbon sequestration: Perspectives on additionality, leakage, and permanence. Clim. Policy 2015, 16, 973–992. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  69. Jafari, M.; Cao, S.C.; Jung, J. Geological CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers: Implication on potential solutions of China’s power sector. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2017, 121, 137–155. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  70. Niemi, A.; Bear, J.; Bensabat, J. Geological Storage of CO2 in Deep Saline Formations; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2017. [Google Scholar]
  71. Snæbjörnsdóttir, S.Ó.; Sigfússon, B.; Marieni, C.; Goldberg, D.; Gislason, S.R.; Oelkers, E.H. Carbon dioxide storage through mineral carbonation. Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. 2020, 1, 90–102. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  72. Tarkowski, R. Underground hydrogen storage: Characteristics and prospects. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2019, 105, 86–94. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  73. Kearns, D.; Liu, H.; Consoli, C. Technology readiness and costs of CCS. Glob. CCS Inst. 2021, 3, 24. [Google Scholar]
  74. Khan, M.H.A.; Daiyan, R.; Neal, P.; Haque, N.; MacGill, I.; Amal, R. A framework for assessing economics of blue hydrogen production from steam methane reforming using carbon capture storage & utilisation. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2021, 46, 22685–22706. [Google Scholar]
  75. Orr Jr, F.M. Carbon capture, utilization, and storage: An update. SPE J. 2018, 23, 2444–2455. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  76. Raza, A.; Gholami, R.; Rezaee, R.; Rasouli, V.; Rabiei, M. Significant aspects of carbon capture and storage—A review. Petroleum 2018, 5, 335–340. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  77. Kaplan, R.; Mamrosh, D.; Salih, H.H.; Dastgheib, S.A. Assessment of desalination technologies for treatment of a highly saline brine from a potential CO2 storage site. Desalination 2016, 404, 87–101. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  78. Lee, J.H.; Lee, J.H. Techno-economic and environmental feasibility of mineral carbonation technology for carbon neutrality: A Perspective. Korean J. Chem. Eng. 2021, 38, 1757–1767. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  79. Saran, R.; Arora, V.; Yadav, S. CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation: A review. Glob. NEST J. 2018, 20, 497–503. [Google Scholar]
  80. Veluswamy, H.P.; Kumar, A.; Seo, Y.; Lee, J.D.; Linga, P. A review of solidified natural gas (SNG) technology for gas storage via clathrate hydrates. Appl. Energy 2018, 216, 262–285. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  81. Samuel, G.; Sims, J.M. Drivers and constraints to environmental sustainability in UK-based biobanking: Balancing resource efficiency and future value. BMC Med. Ethic 2023, 24, 36. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  82. Flohr, A.; Schaap, A.; Achterberg, E.P.; Alendal, G.; Arundell, M.; Berndt, C.; Blackford, J.; Böttner, C.; Borisov, S.M.; Brown, R.; et al. Towards improved monitoring of offshore carbon storage: A real-world field experiment detecting a controlled sub-seafloor CO2 release. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control. 2021, 106, 103237. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  83. Yu, H.; Zahidi, I. Environmental hazards posed by mine dust, and monitoring method of mine dust pollution using remote sensing technologies: An overview. Sci. Total. Environ. 2023, 864, 161135. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  84. Howard, J.; Sutton-Grier, A.; Herr, D.; Kleypas, J.; Landis, E.; Mcleod, E.; Pidgeon, E.; Simpson, S. Clarifying the role of coastal and marine systems in climate mitigation. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2017, 15, 42–50. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  85. Hurd, C.L.; Law, C.S.; Bach, L.T.; Britton, D.; Hovenden, M.; Paine, E.R.; Raven, J.A.; Tamsitt, V.; Boyd, P.W. Forensic carbon accounting: Assessing the role of seaweeds for carbon sequestration. J. Phycol. 2022, 58, 347–363. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  86. Wang, Z.; Li, H.; Liu, S.; Xu, J.; Liu, J.; Wang, X. Risk evaluation of CO2 leakage through fracture zone in geological storage reservoir. Fuel 2023, 342, 127896. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  87. Suopajärvi, H.; Umeki, K.; Mousa, E.; Hedayati, A.; Romar, H.; Kemppainen, A.; Wang, C.; Phounglamcheik, A.; Tuomikoski, S.; Norberg, N.; et al. Use of biomass in integrated steelmaking—Status quo, future needs and comparison to other low-CO2 steel production technologies. Appl. Energy 2018, 213, 384–407. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  88. Nauels, A.; Gütschow, J.; Mengel, M.; Meinshausen, M.; Clark, P.U.; Schleussner, C.-F. Attributing long-term sea-level rise to Paris Agreement emission pledges. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2019, 116, 23487–23492. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  89. Dehghani-Sanij, A.R.; Tharumalingam, E.; Dusseault, M.B.; Fraser, R. Study of energy storage systems and environmental challenges of batteries. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2019, 104, 192–208. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  90. Fuss, S.; Lamb, W.F.; Callaghan, M.W.; Hilaire, J.; Creutzig, F.; Amann, T.; Beringer, T.; de Oliveira Garcia, W.; Hartmann, J.; Khanna, T. Negative emissions—Part 2: Costs, potentials and side effects. Environ. Res. Lett. 2018, 13, 063002. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  91. Galina, N.R.; Arce, G.L.; Ávila, I. Evolution of carbon capture and storage by mineral carbonation: Data analysis and relevance of the theme. Miner. Eng. 2019, 142, 105879. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  92. Yeo, T.Y.; Bu, J. Mineral Carbonation for Carbon Capture and Utilization BT—An Economy Based on Carbon Dioxide and Water: Potential of Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Utilization; Aresta, M., Karimi, I., Kawi, S., Eds.; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2019; pp. 105–153. ISBN 978-3-030-15868-2. [Google Scholar]
  93. Shogren, R.; Wood, D.; Orts, W.; Glenn, G. Plant-based materials and transitioning to a circular economy. Sustain. Prod. Consum. 2019, 19, 194–215. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  94. Yadav, S.; Mehra, A. A review on ex situ mineral carbonation. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2021, 28, 12202–12231. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  95. Guo, Q.; Xi, X.; Yang, S.; Cai, M. Technology strategies to achieve carbon peak and carbon neutrality for China’s metal mines. Int. J. Miner. Met. Mater. 2022, 29, 626–634. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  96. Rivard, E.; Trudeau, M.; Zaghib, K. Hydrogen Storage for Mobility: A Review. Materials 2019, 12, 1973. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  97. Consoli, C. Bioenergy and carbon capture and storage. Glob. CCS Inst. 2019, 3–4. [Google Scholar]
  98. Martens, J.A.; Bogaerts, A.; De Kimpe, N.; Jacobs, P.A.; Marin, G.B.; Rabaey, K.; Saeys, M.; Verhelst, S. The Chemical Route to a Carbon Dioxide Neutral World. ChemSusChem 2016, 10, 1039–1055. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  99. Tanzer, S.; Blok, K.; Ramirez, A. Decarbonising industry via BECCS: Promising sectors, challenges, and techno-economic limits of negative emissions. Curr. Sustain. Renew. Energy Rep. 2021, 8, 253–262. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  100. Levihn, F.; Linde, L.; Gustafsson, K.; Dahlen, E. Introducing BECCS through HPC to the research agenda: The case of combined heat and power in Stockholm. Energy Rep. 2019, 5, 1381–1389. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  101. Kargbo, H.; Harris, J.S.; Phan, A.N. “Drop-in” fuel production from biomass: Critical review on techno-economic feasibility and sustainability. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2020, 135, 110168. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  102. Yang, Q.; Zhou, H.; Bartocci, P.; Fantozzi, F.; Mašek, O.; Agblevor, F.A.; Wei, Z.; Yang, H.; Chen, H.; Lu, X.; et al. Prospective contributions of biomass pyrolysis to China’s 2050 carbon reduction and renewable energy goals. Nat. Commun. 2021, 12, 1698. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  103. Forster, E.J.; Healey, J.R.; Dymond, C.; Styles, D. Commercial afforestation can deliver effective climate change mitigation under multiple decarbonisation pathways. Nat. Commun. 2021, 12, 3831. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  104. de Jonge, M.M.; Daemen, J.; Loriaux, J.M.; Steinmann, Z.J.; Huijbregts, M.A. Life cycle carbon efficiency of Direct Air Capture systems with strong hydroxide sorbents. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control. 2018, 80, 25–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  105. Ghiat, I.; Al-Ansari, T. A review of carbon capture and utilisation as a CO2 abatement opportunity within the EWF nexus. J. CO2 Util. 2021, 45, 101432. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  106. McLaren, D.P.; Tyfield, D.P.; Willis, R.; Szerszynski, B.; Markusson, N.O. Beyond “Net-Zero”: A Case for Separate Targets for Emissions Reduction and Negative Emissions. Front. Clim. 2019, 1, 4. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  107. Gür, T.M. Carbon dioxide emissions, capture, storage and utilization: Review of materials, processes and technologies. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 2022, 89, 100965. [Google Scholar]
  108. Ozkan, M.; Nayak, S.P.; Ruiz, A.D.; Jiang, W. Current status and pillars of direct air capture technologies. iScience 2022, 25, 103990. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  109. Bataille, C.; Åhman, M.; Neuhoff, K.; Nilsson, L.J.; Fischedick, M.; Lechtenböhmer, S.; Solano-Rodriquez, B.; Denis-Ryan, A.; Stiebert, S.; Waisman, H.; et al. A review of technology and policy deep decarbonization pathway options for making energy-intensive industry production consistent with the Paris Agreement. J. Clean. Prod. 2018, 187, 960–973. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  110. Hanna, R.; Abdulla, A.; Xu, Y.; Victor, D.G. Emergency deployment of direct air capture as a response to the climate crisis. Nat. Commun. 2021, 12, 368. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  111. Jin, L.; Hawthorne, S.; Sorensen, J.; Pekot, L.; Kurz, B.; Smith, S.; Heebink, L.; Herdegen, V.; Bosshart, N.; Torres, J.; et al. Advancing CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery and Storage in Unconventional Oil Play—Experimental Studies on Bakken Shales. Appl. Energy 2017, 208, 171–183. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  112. Choi, Y.Y.; Patel, A.K.; Hong, M.E.; Chang, W.S.; Sim, S.J. Microalgae Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS): An emerging sustainable bioprocess for reduced CO2 emission and biofuel production. Bioresour. Technol. Rep. 2019, 7, 100270. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  113. Welfle, A.; Chingaira, S.; Kassenov, A. Decarbonising Kenya’s domestic & industry Sectors through bioenergy: An assessment of biomass resource potential & GHG performances. Biomass Bioenergy 2020, 142, 105757. [Google Scholar]
  114. Al-Mamoori, A.; Krishnamurthy, A.; Rownaghi, A.A.; Rezaei, F. Carbon Capture and Utilization Update. Energy Technol. 2017, 5, 834–849. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  115. Mikulčić, H.; Skov, I.R.; Dominković, D.F.; Alwi, S.R.W.; Manan, Z.A.; Tan, R.; Duić, N.; Mohamad, S.N.H.; Wang, X. Flexible Carbon Capture and Utilization technologies in future energy systems and the utilization pathways of captured CO2. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2019, 114, 109338. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  116. Kramer, D. Negative carbon dioxide emissions. Phys. Today 2020, 73, 44–51. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  117. Scrivener, K.L.; John, V.M.; Gartner, E.M. Eco-Efficient Cements: Potential Economically Viable Solutions for a Low-CO2 Cement-Based Materials Industry; United Nations Environment Program: Nairobi, Kenya, 2016. [Google Scholar]
  118. Darcan, N.K.; Silanikove, N. The advantages of goats for future adaptation to Climate Change: A conceptual overview. Small Rumin. Res. 2018, 163, 34–38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  119. Ming, T.; De_Richter, R.; Shen, S.; Caillol, S. Fighting global warming by greenhouse gas removal: Destroying atmospheric nitrous oxide thanks to synergies between two breakthrough technologies. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2016, 23, 6119–6138. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  120. Jabbour, A.B.L.d.S.; Vazquez-Brust, D.; Jabbour, C.J.C.; Latan, H. Green supply chain practices and environmental performance in Brazil: Survey, case studies, and implications for B2B. Ind. Mark. Manag. 2017, 66, 13–28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  121. Al-Ansari, T.; Korre, A.; Nie, Z.; Shah, N. Integration of greenhouse gas control technologies within the energy, water and food nexus to enhance the environmental performance of food production systems. J. Clean. Prod. 2017, 162, 1592–1606. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  122. Hanak, D.P.; Manovic, V. Linking renewables and fossil fuels with carbon capture via energy storage for a sustainable energy future. Front. Chem. Sci. Eng. 2019, 14, 453–459. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  123. Kanwal, S.; Mehran, M.T.; Hassan, M.; Anwar, M.; Naqvi, S.R.; Khoja, A.H. An integrated future approach for the energy security of Pakistan: Replacement of fossil fuels with syngas for better environment and socio-economic development. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2022, 156, 111978. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  124. Flamme, S.; Benrath, D.; Glanz, S.; Hoffart, F.; Pielow, C.; Roos, M.; Span, R.; Wagner, H.-J.; Schönauer, A.-L. ELEGANCY: The Interdisciplinary Approach of the German Case Study to Enable a Low Carbon Economy by Hydrogen and CCS. Energy Procedia 2019, 158, 3709–3714. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  125. Safari, A.; Das, N.; Langhelle, O.; Roy, J.; Assadi, M. Natural gas: A transition fuel for sustainable energy system transformation? Energy Sci. Eng. 2019, 7, 1075–1094. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  126. Xu, C.; Yang, J.; He, L.; Wei, W.; Yang, Y.; Yin, X.; Yang, W.; Lin, A. Carbon Capture and Storage as a Strategic Reserve against China’s CO2 Emissions. Environ. Dev. 2021, 37, 100608. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  127. Kang, J.-N.; Wei, Y.-M.; Liu, L.-C.; Wang, J.-W. Observing technology reserves of carbon capture and storage via patent data: Paving the way for carbon neutral. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Chang. 2021, 171, 120933. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  128. Subraveti, S.G.; Angel, E.R.; Ramírez, A.; Roussanaly, S. Is Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Really So Expensive? An Analysis of Cascading Costs and CO2 Emissions Reduction of Industrial CCS Implementation on the Construction of a Bridge. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2023, 57, 2595–2601. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  129. Lee, J.S.; Choi, E.C. CO2 leakage environmental damage cost—A CCS project in South Korea. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2018, 93, 753–758. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  130. Song, Y.; Jun, S.; Na, Y.; Kim, K.; Jang, Y.; Wang, J. Geomechanical challenges during geological CO2 storage: A review. Chem. Eng. J. 2023, 456, 140968. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  131. Mabon, L.; Kita, J.; Xue, Z. Challenges for social impact assessment in coastal regions: A case study of the Tomakomai CCS Demonstration Project. Mar. Policy 2017, 83, 243–251. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  132. Swennenhuis, F.; Mabon, L.; Flach, T.A.; de Coninck, H. What role for CCS in delivering just transitions? An evaluation in the North Sea region. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control. 2020, 94, 102903. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  133. Zuberi, M.J.S.; Patel, M.K. Bottom-up analysis of energy efficiency improvement and CO2 emission reduction potentials in the Swiss cement industry. J. Clean. Prod. 2017, 142, 4294–4309. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  134. Saevarsdottir, G.; Kvande, H.; Welch, B.J. Aluminum Production in the Times of Climate Change: The Global Challenge to Reduce the Carbon Footprint and Prevent Carbon Leakage. JOM 2019, 72, 296–308. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  135. Li, J.; Cheng, W. Comparative life cycle energy consumption, carbon emissions and economic costs of hydrogen production from coke oven gas and coal gasification. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2020, 45, 27979–27993. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  136. Lu, J.; Herremans, I.M. Board gender diversity and environmental performance: An industries perspective. Bus. Strat. Environ. 2019, 28, 1449–1464. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  137. Obeidat, S.M.; Al Bakri, A.A.; Elbanna, S. Leveraging “green” human resource practices to enable environmental and organiza-tional performance: Evidence from the Qatari oil and gas industry. J. Bus. Ethics 2020, 164, 371–388. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  138. Wang, L.; Tian, Y.; Yu, X.; Wang, C.; Yao, B.; Wang, S.; Winterfeld, P.H.; Wang, X.; Yang, Z.; Wang, Y.; et al. Advances in improved/enhanced oil recovery technologies for tight and shale reservoirs. Fuel 2017, 210, 425–445. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  139. Haszeldine, R.S.; Flude, S.; Johnson, G.; Scott, V. Negative emissions technologies and carbon capture and storage to achieve the Paris Agreement commitments. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 2018, 376, 20160447. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  140. Brown, K.; Whittaker, S.; Wilson, M.; Srisang, W.; Smithson, H.; Tontiwachwuthikul, P. The history and development of the IEA GHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project in Saskatchewan, Canada (the world largest CO2 for EOR and CCS program). Petroleum 2017, 3, 3–9. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  141. Luo, X.; Wang, M. Study of solvent-based carbon capture for cargo ships through process modelling and simulation. Appl. Energy 2017, 195, 402–413. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  142. Wang, C.; Liu, P.; Wang, F.; Atadurdyyev, B.; Ovluyagulyyev, M. Experimental study on effects of CO2 and improving oil recovery for CO2 assisted SAGD in super-heavy-oil reservoirs. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 2018, 165, 1073–1080. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  143. Wang, Q.; Yang, S.; Glover, P.W.J.; Lorinczi, P.; Qian, K.; Wang, L. Effect of Pore-Throat Microstructures on Formation Damage during Miscible CO2 Flooding of Tight Sandstone Reservoirs. Energy Fuels 2020, 34, 4338–4352. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  144. Khurshid, I.; Afgan, I. Geochemical Investigation of CO2 Injection in Oil and Gas Reservoirs of Middle East to Estimate the Formation Damage and Related Oil Recovery. Energies 2021, 14, 7676. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  145. Wilberforce, T.; Baroutaji, A.; Soudan, B.; Al-Alami, A.H.; Olabi, A.G. Outlook of carbon capture technology and challenges. Sci. Total. Environ. 2018, 657, 56–72. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  146. Haugen, M.J.; Flynn, D.; Greening, P.; Tichler, J.; Blythe, P.; Boies, A.M. Electrification versus hydrogen for UK road freight: Conclusions from a systems analysis of transport energy transitions. Energy Sustain. Dev. 2022, 68, 203–210. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  147. Madanhire, I.; Mbohwa, C. Mitigating Environmental Impact of Petroleum Lubricants; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2016. [Google Scholar]
  148. Farajzadeh, R.; Eftekhari, A.; Dafnomilis, G.; Lake, L.; Bruining, J. On the sustainability of CO2 storage through CO2—Enhanced oil recovery. Appl. Energy 2020, 261, 114467. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  149. Mavar, K.N.; Gaurina-Međimurec, N.; Hrnčević, L. Significance of Enhanced Oil Recovery in Carbon Dioxide Emission Reduction. Sustainability 2021, 13, 1800. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  150. Van, S.L.; Chon, B.H. Effective prediction and management of a CO2 flooding process for enhancing oil recovery using artificial neural networks. J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2018, 140, 032906. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  151. Leeson, D.; Mac Dowell, N.; Shah, N.; Petit, C.; Fennell, P. A Techno-economic analysis and systematic review of carbon capture and storage (CCS) applied to the iron and steel, cement, oil refining and pulp and paper industries, as well as other high purity sources. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control. 2017, 61, 71–84. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  152. Miocic, J.M.; Gilfillan, S.M.V.; Frank, N.; Schroeder-Ritzrau, A.; Burnside, N.M.; Haszeldine, R.S. 420,000 year assessment of fault leakage rates shows geological carbon storage is secure. Sci. Rep. 2019, 9, 769. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  153. Al-Shargabi, M.; Davoodi, S.; Wood, D.A.; Rukavishnikov, V.S.; Minaev, K.M. Carbon Dioxide Applications for Enhanced Oil Recovery Assisted by Nanoparticles: Recent Developments. ACS Omega 2022, 7, 9984–9994. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  154. Abuov, Y.; Serik, G.; Lee, W. Techno-Economic Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment of CO2-EOR. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2022, 56, 8571–8580. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  155. Zuloaga-Molero, P.; Yu, W.; Xu, Y.; Sepehrnoori, K.; Li, B. Simulation Study of CO2-EOR in Tight Oil Reservoirs with Complex Fracture Geometries. Sci. Rep. 2016, 6, 33445. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  156. Nikolova, C.; Tony, G. Use of microorganisms in the recovery of oil from recalcitrant oil reservoirs: Current state of knowledge, technological advances and future perspectives. Front. Microbiol. 2020, 10, 2996. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  157. Pei, Y.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, N. How do corruption and energy efficiency affect the carbon emission performance of China’s industrial sectors? Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2021, 28, 31403–31420. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  158. Li, Z.; Kang, W.; Yang, H.; Zhou, B.; Jiang, H.; Liu, D.; Jia, H.; Wang, J. Advances of supramolecular interaction systems for improved oil recovery (IOR). Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 2022, 301, 102617. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  159. Cho, J.; Min, B.; Jeong, M.S.; Lee, Y.W.; Lee, K.S. Modeling of CO2-LPG WAG with asphaltene deposition to predict coupled enhanced oil recovery and storage performance. Sci. Rep. 2021, 11, 2082. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  160. Guo, J.-X.; Huang, C.; Wang, J.-L.; Meng, X.-Y. Integrated operation for the planning of CO2 capture path in CCS–EOR project. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 2019, 186, 106720. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  161. Matos, C.R.; Carneiro, J.F.; Silva, P.P. Overview of Large-Scale Underground Energy Storage Technologies for Integration of Renewable Energies and Criteria for Reservoir Identification. J. Energy Storage 2018, 21, 241–258. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  162. Middleton, R.S.; Yaw, S.P.; Hoover, B.A.; Ellett, K.M. SimCCS: An open-source tool for optimizing CO2 capture, transport, and storage infrastructure. Environ. Model. Softw. 2019, 124, 104560. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  163. Kolster, C.; Masnadi, M.S.; Krevor, S.; Mac Dowell, N.; Brandt, A.R. CO2 enhanced oil recovery: A catalyst for gigatonne-scale carbon capture and storage deployment? Energy Environ. Sci. 2017, 10, 2594–2608. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  164. Xian, X.; Mahoutian, M.; Zhang, S.; Shao, Y.; Zhang, D.; Liu, J. Converting industrial waste into a value-added cement material through ambient pressure carbonation. J. Environ. Manag. 2023, 325, 116603. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  165. Jakobsen, J.; Roussanaly, S.; Anantharaman, R. A techno-economic case study of CO2 capture, transport and storage chain from a cement plant in Norway. J. Clean. Prod. 2016, 144, 523–539. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  166. Cox, E.; Edwards, N.R. Beyond carbon pricing: Policy levers for negative emissions technologies. Clim. Policy 2019, 19, 1144–1156. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  167. Talati, S.; Zhai, H.; Morgan, M.G. Viability of Carbon Capture and Sequestration Retrofits for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants under an Emission Trading Scheme. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2016, 50, 12567–12574. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  168. Hong, W.Y. A techno-economic review on carbon capture, utilisation and storage systems for achieving a net-zero CO2 emissions future. Carbon Capture Sci. Technol. 2022, 3, 100044. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  169. Lv, J.; Chi, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, Y.; Mu, H. Experimental study of the supercritical CO2 diffusion coefficient in porous media under reservoir conditions. R. Soc. Open Sci. 2019, 6, 181902. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  170. Lichtschlag, A.; Pearce, C.R.; Suominen, M.; Blackford, J.; Borisov, S.M.; Bull, J.M.; de Beer, D.; Dean, M.; Esposito, M.; Flohr, A.; et al. Suitability analysis and revised strategies for marine environmental carbon capture and storage (CCS) monitoring. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control. 2021, 112, 103510. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  171. Massarweh, O.; Abushaikha, A.S. A review of recent developments in CO2 mobility control in enhanced oil recovery. Petroleum 2022, 8, 291–317. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  172. Rognmo, A.; Heldal, S.; Fernø, M. Silica nanoparticles to stabilize CO2-foam for improved CO2 utilization: Enhanced CO2 storage and oil recovery from mature oil reservoirs. Fuel 2018, 216, 621–626. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  173. Farhadi, H.; Riahi, S.; Ayatollahi, S.; Ahmadi, H. Experimental study of nanoparticle-surfactant-stabilized CO2 foam: Stability and mobility control. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 2016, 111, 449–460. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  174. Ren, D.; Wang, X.; Kou, Z.; Wang, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Tang, Y.; Jiao, Z.; Zhou, D.; Zhang, R. Feasibility Evaluation of CO2 EOR and Storage in Tight Oil Reservoirs: A Demonstration Project in the Ordos Basin. Fuel 2023, 331, 125652. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  175. Kumar, S.; Mandal, A. A comprehensive review on chemically enhanced water alternating gas/CO2 (CEWAG) injection for enhanced oil recovery. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 2017, 157, 696–715. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  176. Yekeen, N.; Khan, J.A.; Ali, M.; Elraies, K.A.; Okunde, O.A.; Ridha, S.; Al-Yaseri, A. Impact of nanoparticles–surfactant solutions on carbon dioxide and methane wettabilities of organic-rich shale and CO2/brine interfacial tension: Implication for carbon geosequestration. Energy Rep. 2022, 8, 15669–15685. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  177. Dong, Y.; Hu, H.; Wang, R.; Wang, S.; Meng, W.; Chen, Z.; Tang, S. Evaluation of the Driving Effect of the CO2 Viscosity Enhancer Composite System in Extra-Low Per-meability Sandstone Reservoirs. ACS Omega 2023, 8, 5625–5633. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  178. Gbadamosi, A.O.; Junin, R.; Manan, M.A.; Agi, A.; Yusuff, A.S. An overview of chemical enhanced oil recovery: Recent advances and prospects. Int. Nano Lett. 2019, 9, 171–202. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  179. Wang, Y.; Ren, S.; Zhang, L.; Peng, X.; Pei, S.; Cui, G.; Liu, Y. Numerical study of air assisted cyclic steam stimulation process for heavy oil reservoirs: Recovery performance and energy efficiency analysis. Fuel 2018, 211, 471–483. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  180. Nowrouzi, I.; Manshad, A.K.; Mohammadi, A.H. Effects of TiO2, MgO and γ-Al2O3 nano-particles on wettability alteration and oil production under carbonated nano-fluid imbibition in carbonate oil reservoirs. Fuel 2019, 259, 116110. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  181. Pal, N.; Verma, A.; Ojha, K.; Mandal, A. Nanoparticle-modified gemini surfactant foams as efficient displacing fluids for enhanced oil recovery. J. Mol. Liq. 2020, 310, 113193. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  182. McLaren, D.; Markusson, N. The co-evolution of technological promises, modelling, policies and climate change targets. Nat. Clim. Chang. 2020, 10, 392–397. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  183. Dunstan, M.T.; Jain, A.; Liu, W.; Ong, S.P.; Liu, T.; Lee, J.; Persson, K.A.; Scott, S.A.; Dennis, J.S.; Grey, C.P. Large scale computational screening and experimental discovery of novel materials for high temperature CO2 capture. Energy Environ. Sci. 2016, 9, 1346–1360. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  184. Wang, Y.; Han, X.; Li, J.; Liu, R.; Wang, Q.; Huang, C.; Wang, X.; Zhang, L.; Lin, R. Review on Oil Displacement Technologies of Enhanced Oil Recovery: State-of-the-Art and Outlook. Energy Fuels 2023, 37, 2539–2568. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  185. Gaurina-Međimurec, N.; Mavar, K.N. Depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs and CO2 injection wells–CO2 leakage assessment. Rud. Zb. 2017, 32, 15–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  186. Li, Y.; Yang, C.; Li, Y.; Kumar, A.; Kleeman, M.J. Future emissions of particles and gases that cause regional air pollution in California under different greenhouse gas mitigation strategies. Atmos. Environ. 2022, 273, 118960. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  187. Xu, C.; Hong, J.; Ren, Y.; Wang, Q.; Yuan, X. Approaches for controlling air pollutants and their environmental impacts generated from coal-based electricity generation in China. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2015, 22, 12384–12395. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  188. Mac Dowell, N.; Fennell, P.S.; Shah, N.; Maitland, G.C. The role of CO2 capture and utilization in mitigating climate change. Nat. Clim. Chang. 2017, 7, 243–249. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  189. Rashid, M.I.; Benhelal, E.; Rafiq, S. Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Gas, Oil, and Coal Power Plants in Pakistan by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): A Review. Chem. Eng. Technol. 2020, 43, 2140–2148. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  190. Allinson, K.; Burt, D.; Campbell, L.; Constable, L.; Crombie, M.; Lee, A.; Lima, V.; Lloyd, T.; Solsbey, L. Best Practice for Transitioning from Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Enhanced Oil Recovery EOR to CO2 Storage. Energy Procedia 2017, 114, 6950–6956. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  191. Manisalidis, I.; Stavropoulou, E.; Stavropoulos, A.; Bezirtzoglou, E. Environmental and Health Impacts of Air Pollution: A Review. Front. Public Health 2020, 8, 14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  192. Hu, Y.; Cheng, H.; Tao, S. Environmental and human health challenges of industrial livestock and poultry farming in China and their mitigation. Environ. Int. 2017, 107, 111–130. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  193. Gholami, R.; Raza, A.; Iglauer, S. Leakage risk assessment of a CO2 storage site: A review. Earth-Science Rev. 2021, 223, 103849. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  194. Roefs, P.; Moretti, M.; Welkenhuysen, K.; Piessens, K.; Compernolle, T. CO2-enhanced oil recovery and CO2 capture and storage: An environmental economic trade-off analysis. J. Environ. Manag. 2019, 239, 167–177. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  195. Ko, K.; Lee, J.-Y.; Chung, H. Highly efficient colorimetric CO2 sensors for monitoring CO2 leakage from carbon capture and storage sites. Sci. Total. Environ. 2020, 729, 138786. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  196. Jana, A.; Snyder, S.W.; Crumlin, E.J.; Qian, J. Integrated carbon capture and conversion: A review on C2+ product mechanisms and mechanism-guided strategies. Front. Chem. 2023, 11, 1135829. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  197. Størset, S.; Tangen, G.; Berstad, D.; Eliasson, P.; Hoff, K.A.; Langørgen, Ø.; Munkejord, S.T.; Roussanaly, S.; Torsæter, M. Profiting from CCS innovations: A study to measure potential value creation from CCS research and development. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control. 2019, 83, 208–215. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  198. Julien, M.; Colas, B.; Muller, S.; Schatz, B. Dataset of costs of the mitigation hierarchy and plant translocations in France. Data Brief 2022, 40, 107722. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  199. Heesh, N. Low carbon policy and market mechanisms to enable carbon capture and storage and decarbonisation in Australia. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control. 2021, 105, 103236. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  200. Da Fonseca, R.S.; Veloso, A.P. The practice and future of financing science, technology, and innovation. Φopcaйm 2018, 12, 6–22. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  201. Piñeiro, V.; Arias, J.; Dürr, J.; Elverdin, P.; Ibáñez, A.M.; Kinengyere, A.; Opazo, C.M.; Owoo, N.; Page, J.R.; Prager, S.D.; et al. A scoping review on incentives for adoption of sustainable agricultural practices and their outcomes. Nat. Sustain. 2020, 3, 809–820. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  202. Perona, J.J. Biodiesel for the 21st century renewable energy economy. Energy LJ 2017, 38, 165. [Google Scholar]
  203. Pihkola, H.; Tsupari, E.; Kojo, M.; Kujanpää, L.; Nissilä, M.; Sokka, L.; Behm, K. Integrated Sustainability Assessment of CCS—Identifying Non-technical Barriers and Drivers for CCS Implementation in Finland. Energy Procedia 2017, 114, 7625–7637. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  204. Harkin, T.; Filby, I.; Sick, H.; Manderson, D.; Ashton, R. Development of a CO2 Specification for a CCS Hub Network. Energy Procedia 2017, 114, 6708–6720. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  205. Dai, Z.; Viswanathan, H.; Middleton, R.; Pan, F.; Ampomah, W.; Yang, C.; Jia, W.; Xiao, T.; Lee, S.; McPherson, B.; et al. CO2 accounting and risk analysis for CO2 sequestration at enhanced oil recovery sites. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2016, 50, 7546–7554. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  206. Ilinova, A.; Cherepovitsyn, A.; Evseeva, O. Stakeholder Management: An Approach in CCS Projects. Resources 2018, 7, 83. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  207. Herepovitsyn, A.E.; Ilinova, A.A.; Evseeva, O.O. Stakeholders management of carbon sequestration project in the state–business–society system. Записки Гoрнoгo Института 2019, 240, 731–742. [Google Scholar]
  208. Chiarini, A. Industry 4.0 technologies in the manufacturing sector: Are we sure they are all relevant for environmental per-formance? Bus. Strategy Environ. 2021, 30, 3194–3207. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  209. Leiss, W.; Larkin, P. Risk communication and public engagement in CCS projects: The foundations of public acceptability. Int. J. Risk Assess. Manag. 2019, 22, 384. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  210. Sahoo, B.; Behera, D.K.; Rahut, D. Decarbonization: Examining the role of environmental innovation versus renewable energy use. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2022, 29, 48704–48719. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  211. Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Xie, J. Influencing factors and application prospects of CO2 flooding in heterogeneous glutenite reservoirs. Sci. Rep. 2020, 10, 1839. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  212. Soltanzadeh, A.; Mahdinia, M.; Golmohammadpour, H.; Pourbabaki, R.; Mohammad-Ghasemi, M.; Sadeghi-Yarandi, M. Evaluating the potential severity of biogas toxic release, fire and explosion: Consequence modeling of biogas dispersion in a large urban treatment plant. Int. J. Occup. Saf. Ergon. 2022, 29, 335–346. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  213. Driga, A.M.; Drigas, A.S. Climate Change 101: How Everyday Activities Contribute to the Ever-Growing Issue. Int. J. Recent Contrib. Eng. Sci. IT 2019, 7, 22–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  214. Shahbazi, A.; Nasab, B.R. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) and its Impacts on Climate Change and Global Warming. J. Pet. Environ. Biotechnol. 2016, 7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  215. Mustafa, M.; Alshare, M.; Bhargava, D.; Neware, R.; Singh, B.; Ngulube, P. Perceived Security Risk Based on Moderating Factors for Blockchain Technology Applications in Cloud Storage to Achieve Secure Healthcare Systems. Comput. Math. Methods Med. 2022, 2022, 6112815. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  216. Roberts, J.J.; Gilfillan, S.M.; Stalker, L.; Naylor, M. Geochemical tracers for monitoring offshore CO2 stores. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control. 2017, 65, 218–234. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  217. Chen, Y.; Guerschman, J.P.; Cheng, Z.; Guo, L. Remote sensing for vegetation monitoring in carbon capture storage regions: A review. Appl. Energy 2019, 240, 312–326. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  218. Janik-Karpinska, E.; Brancaleoni, R.; Niemcewicz, M.; Wojtas, W.; Foco, M.; Podogrocki, M.; Bijak, M. Healthcare Waste—A Serious Problem for Global Health. Healthcare 2023, 11, 242. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  219. Wulayatu, M. Policies on Sustainable Remediation of Contaminated Soil in the Us and Eu. Bachelor’s Thesis, South-Eastern Finland University of Applied Sciences, Kouvola, Finland, 2022. [Google Scholar]
  220. Kang, J.-N.; Wei, Y.-M.; Liu, L.-C.; Yu, B.-Y.; Liao, H. A social learning approach to carbon capture and storage demonstration project management: An empirical analysis. Appl. Energy 2021, 299, 117336. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  221. Razvarz, S.; Jafari, R.; Gegov, A. Flow Modelling and Control in Pipeline Systems. Stud. Syst. Decis. Control. 2021, 321, 25–57. [Google Scholar]
  222. Rahman, F.A.; Aziz, M.M.A.; Saidur, R.; Abu Bakar, W.A.W.; Hainin, M.R.; Putrajaya, R.; Hassan, N.A. Pollution to solution: Capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and its utilization as a renewable energy source for a sustainable future. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2017, 71, 112–126. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  223. Gough, C.; Cunningham, R.; Mander, S. Understanding key elements in establishing a social license for CCS: An empirical ap-proach. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control. 2018, 68, 16–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  224. Crawford, B.A.; Katz, R.A.; McKay, S.K. Engaging Stakeholders in Natural Resource Decision-Making; Engineer Research and Development Center: Saint Louis, MO, USA, 2017. [Google Scholar]
  225. Fedoseev, S.V.; Tcvetkov, P.S. Key factors of public perception of carbon dioxide capture and storage projects. Записки Гoрнoгo Института 2019, 237, 361–368. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  226. Murdoch, L.C.; Germanovich, L.N.; Slack, W.W.; Carbajales-Dale, M.; Knight, D.; Moak, R.; Laffaille, C.; DeWolf, S.; Roudini, S. Shallow Geologic Storage of Carbon to Remove Atmospheric CO2 and Reduce Flood Risk. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2023, 57, 8536–8547. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  227. Zheng, X.; Junfeng, S.H.I.; Gang, C.A.O.; Nengyu, Y.; Mingyue, C.U.I.; Deli, J.I.A.; He, L.I.U. Progress and Prospects of Oil and Gas Production Engineering Technology in China. Pet. Explor. Dev. 2022, 49, 644–659. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  228. Cuéllar-Franca, R.M.; Azapagic, A. Carbon capture, storage and utilisation technologies: A critical analysis and comparison of their life cycle environmental impacts. J. CO2 Util. 2015, 9, 82–102. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  229. Yu, W.; Lashgari, H.R.; Wu, K.; Sepehrnoori, K. CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery in Bakken tight oil reservoirs. Fuel 2015, 159, 354–363. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  230. Burrows, L.C.; Haeri, F.; Cvetic, P.; Sanguinito, S.; Shi, F.; Tapriyal, D.; Goodman, A.L.; Enick, R.M. A Literature Review of CO2, Natural Gas, and Water-Based Fluids for Enhanced Oil Recovery in Unconventional Reservoirs. Energy Fuels 2020, 34, 5331–5380. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  231. Tarkowski, R.; Uliasz-Misiak, B.; Tarkowski, P. Storage of hydrogen, natural gas, and carbon dioxide–Geological and legal con-ditions. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 2021, 46, 20010–20022. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  232. Sedlar, D.K.; Vulin, D.; Krajačić, G.; Jukić, L. Offshore gas production infrastructure reutilisation for blue energy production. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2019, 108, 159–174. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  233. Xinhua, M.; Zheng, D.; Ruichen, S.; Chunyan, W.; Jinheng, L.; Junchang, S. Key technologies and practice for gas field storage facility construction of complex geological conditions in China. Pet. Explor. Dev. 2018, 45, 507–520. [Google Scholar]
  234. Ciotta, M.; Peyerl, D.; Zacharias, L.G.L.; Fontenelle, A.L.; Tassinari, C.; Moretto, E.M. CO2 storage potential of offshore oil and gas fields in Brazil. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control. 2021, 112, 103492. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  235. Eide, L.I.; Batum, M.; Dixon, T.; Elamin, Z.; Graue, A.; Hagen, S.; Hovorka, S.; Nazarian, B.; Nøkleby, P.H.; Olsen, G.I.; et al. Enabling Large-Scale Carbon Capture, Utilisation, and Storage (CCUS) Using Offshore Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Infrastructure Developments—A Review. Energies 2019, 12, 1945. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  236. Bera, A.; Vij, R.K.; Shah, S. Impact of newly implemented enhanced oil and gas recovery screening policy on current oil production and future energy supply in India. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 2021, 207, 109196. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  237. Moshari, A.; Aslani, A.; Zolfaghari, Z.; Malekli, M.; Zahedi, R. Forecasting and gap analysis of renewable energy integration in zero energy-carbon buildings: A comprehensive bibliometric and machine learning approach. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2023, 30, 91729–91745. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  238. Zhang, Z.; Pan, S.-Y.; Li, H.; Cai, J.; Olabi, A.G.; Anthony, E.J.; Manovic, V. Recent Advances in Carbon Dioxide Utilization. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2020, 125, 109799. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  239. Razmjoo, A.; Kaigutha, L.G.; Rad, M.V.; Marzband, M.; Davarpanah, A.; Denai, M. A Technical analysis investigating energy sus-tainability utilizing reliable renewable energy sources to reduce CO2 emissions in a high potential area. Renew. Energy 2021, 164, 46–57. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  240. Verma, M.K. Fundamentals of Carbon Dioxide-Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR): A Supporting Document of the Assessment Methodology for Hydrocarbon Recovery Using CO2-EOR Associated with Carbon Sequestration; U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report; US Geological Survey: Tucson, AZ, USA, 2015. [Google Scholar]
  241. González-González, L.M.; Correa, D.F.; Ryan, S.; Jensen, P.D.; Pratt, S.; Schenk, P.M. Integrated biodiesel and biogas production from microalgae: Towards a sustainable closed loop through nutrient recycling. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2017, 82, 1137–1148. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  242. Fan, J.-L.; Yu, P.; Li, K.; Xu, M.; Zhang, X. A levelized cost of hydrogen (LCOH) comparison of coal-to-hydrogen with CCS and water electrolysis powered by renewable energy in China. Energy 2021, 242, 123003. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  243. Psarras, P.; He, J.; Pilorgé, H.; McQueen, N.; Jensen-Fellows, A.; Kian, K.; Wilcox, J. Cost Analysis of Carbon Capture and Sequestration from U.S. Natural Gas-Fired Power Plants. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2020, 54, 6272–6280. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  244. Kazemifar, F. A review of technologies for carbon capture, sequestration, and utilization: Cost, capacity, and technology readiness. Greenh. Gases Sci. Technol. 2022, 12, 200–230. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  245. Alsarhan, L.M.; Alayyar, A.S.; Alqahtani, N.B.; Khdary, N.H. Circular carbon economy (CCE): A way to invest CO2 and protect the environment, a review. Sustainability 2021, 13, 11625. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  246. Gils, H.C.; Scholz, Y.; Pregger, T.; de Tena, D.L.; Heide, D. Integrated modelling of variable renewable energy-based power supply in Europe. Energy 2017, 123, 173–188. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  247. Al-Shetwi, A.Q. Sustainable development of renewable energy integrated power sector: Trends, environmental impacts, and recent challenges. Sci. Total. Environ. 2022, 822, 153645. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  248. Bahman, N.; Al-Khalifa, M.; Al Baharna, S.; Abdulmohsen, Z.; Khan, E. Review of carbon capture and storage technologies in se-lected industries: Potentials and challenges. Rev. Environ. Sci. Bio/Technol. 2023, 22, 451–470. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  249. Harding, F.C.; James, A.T.; Robertson, H.E. The engineering challenges of CO2 storage. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A J. Power Energy 2018, 232, 17–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  250. Picha, M.S.; Abu Bakar, M.A.B.; Patil, P.A.; Abu Bakar, F.A.; Das, D.P.; Tiwari, P.K. Overcoming CO2 Injector Well Design and Completion Challenges in a Carbonate Reservoir for World’s First Offshore Carbon Capture Storage CCS SE Asia Project. In Proceedings of the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 9 December 2021. [Google Scholar]
  251. Rodriguez Acevedo, E.; Cortés, F.B.; Franco, C.A.; Carrasco-Marín, F.; Pérez-Cadenas, A.F.; Fierro, V.; Celzard, A.; Schaefer, S.; Cardona Molina, A. An Enhanced Carbon Capture and Storage Process (e-CCS) Applied to Shallow Reservoirs Using Nanofluids Based on Nitrogen-Rich Carbon Nanospheres. Materials 2019, 12, 2088. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  252. Bartholomew, T.V.; Mauter, M.S. Energy and CO2 Emissions Penalty Ranges for Geologic Carbon Storage Brine Management. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2021, 55, 4305–4313. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  253. Vega, F.; Baena-Moreno, F.; Fernández, L.M.G.; Portillo, E.; Navarrete, B.; Zhang, Z. Current status of CO2 chemical absorption research applied to CCS: Towards full deployment at industrial scale. Appl. Energy 2019, 260, 114313. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  254. Matter, J.M.; Stute, M.; Snæbjörnsdottir, S.Ó.; Oelkers, E.H.; Gislason, S.R.; Aradottir, E.S.; Sigfusson, B.; Gunnarsson, I.; Sigurdardottir, H.; Gunnlaugsson, E.; et al. Rapid Carbon Mineralization for Permanent Disposal of Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide Emissions. Science 2016, 352, 1312–1314. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  255. Loria, P.; Bright, M.B. Lessons captured from 50 years of CCS projects. Electr. J. 2021, 34, 106998. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  256. Gamon, J.A. Revisiting the carbon–biodiversity connection. Glob. Chang. Biol. 2023, 29, 5117–5119. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  257. Balaji, K.; Zhou, Z.; Rabiei, M. How Big Data Analytics Can Help Future Regulatory Issues in Carbon Capture and Sequestration CCS Projects. In Proceedings of the SPE Western Regional Meeting, San Jose, CA, USA, 22 April 2019. [Google Scholar]
  258. Vega, F.; Cano, M.; Camino, S.; Fernández, L.M.G.; Portillo, E.; Navarrete, B. Solvents for Carbon Dioxide Capture. In Carbon Dioxide Chemistry, Capture and Oil Recovery; BoD–Books on Demand: Norderstedt, Germany, 2018. [Google Scholar]
  259. Voituriez, T.; Morita, K.; Giordano, T.; Bakkour, N.; Shimizu, N. 11 Financing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Gov. Through Goals Sustain. Dev. Goals Gov. Innov. 2017, 259. [Google Scholar]
  260. Gowd, S.C.; Ganeshan, P.; Vigneswaran, V.S.; Hossain, M.S.; Kumar, D.; Rajendran, K.; Ngo, H.H.; Pugazhendhi, A. Economic Perspectives and Policy Insights on Carbon Capture, Storage, and Utilization for Sustainable Development. Sci. Total Environ. 2023, 2023, 163656. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  261. Keshavadasu, S.R. Regulatory and policy risks: Analyzing the uncertainties related to changes in government policies, regulations, and incentives affecting solar power project development and operations in Kenya. Energy Policy 2023, 182, 113760. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  262. Schenuit, F.; Böttcher, M.; Geden, O. Carbon Dioxide Removal As an Integral Building Block of the European Green Deal; Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik: Berlin, Germany, 2022. [Google Scholar]
  263. Reed, M.S.; Vella, S.; Challies, E.; de Vente, J.; Frewes, L.; Hohenwallner-Ries, D.; Huber, T.; Neumann, R.K.; Oughton, E.A.; del Ceno, J.S.; et al. A theory of participation: What makes stakeholder and public engagement in environmental management work? Restor. Ecol. 2018, 26, S7–S17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  264. Mulyasari, F.; Harahap, A.; Rio, A.; Sule, R.; Kadir, W. Potentials of the public engagement strategy for public acceptance and social license to operate: Case study of Carbon Capture, Utilisation, and Storage Gundih Pilot Project in Indonesia. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control. 2021, 108, 103312. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  265. Shiyi, Y.; Desheng, M.A.; Junshi, L.; Tiyao, Z.; Zemin, J.I.; Haishui, H.A.N. Progress and Prospects of Carbon Dioxide Capture, EOR-Utilization and Storage Industrialization. Pet. Explor. Dev. 2022, 49, 955–962. [Google Scholar]
  266. Martin-Roberts, E.; Scott, V.; Flude, S.; Johnson, G.; Haszeldine, R.S.; Gilfillan, S. Carbon capture and storage at the end of a lost decade. One Earth 2021, 4, 1569–1584. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  267. Eggersdorfer, M.; Bird, J.K. How to Achieve Transparency in Public-Private Partnerships Engaged in Hunger and Malnutrition Reduction. Hidden Hunger. 2016, 115, 224–232. [Google Scholar]
  268. Sethi, V.K. Low Carbon Technologies (LCT) and Carbon Capture & Sequestration (CCS)—Key to Green Power Mission for Energy Security and Environmental Sustainability BT—Carbon Utilization: Applications for the Energy Industry; Goel, M., Sudhakar, M., Eds.; Springer: Singapore, 2017; pp. 45–57. ISBN 978-981-10-3352-0. [Google Scholar]
  269. Mohammad, N.; Ishak, W.W.M.; Mustapa, S.I.; Ayodele, B.V. Natural Gas as a Key Alternative Energy Source in Sustainable Renewable Energy Transition: A Mini Review. Front. Energy Res. 2021, 9, 625023. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  270. Jones, L.E.; Olsson, G. Solar Photovoltaic and Wind Energy Providing Water. Glob. Chall. 2017, 1, 1600022. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  271. Siegelman, R.L.; Kim, E.J.; Long, J.R. Porous materials for carbon dioxide separations. Nat. Mater. 2021, 20, 1060–1072. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  272. Lv, H.; Yang, L.; Zhou, J.; Zhang, X.; Wu, W.; Li, Y.; Jiang, D. Water resource synergy management in response to climate change in China: From the perspective of urban metabolism. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2020, 163, 105095. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  273. Zhao, X.; Deng, H.; Wang, W.; Han, F.; Li, C.; Zhang, H.; Dai, Z. Impact of naturally leaking carbon dioxide on soil properties and ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. Sci. Rep. 2017, 7, 3001. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  274. Tiwari, P.K.; Chidambaram, P.; Azahree, A.I.; Das, D.P.; Patil, P.A.; Low, Z.; Chandran, P.K.; Tewari, R.D.; Hamid, M.K.A.; Yaakub, M.A. Safeguarding CO2 Storage in a Depleted Offshore Gas Field with Adaptive Approach of Monitoring, Measurement and Verification MMV. In Proceedings of the SPE Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference, Virtual, 15 December 2021. [Google Scholar]
  275. Sanchez, D.L.; Johnson, N.; McCoy, S.T.; Turner, P.A.; Mach, K.J. Near-term deployment of carbon capture and sequestration from biorefineries in the United States. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2018, 115, 4875–4880. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  276. Swennenhuis, F.; de Gooyert, V.; de Coninck, H. Towards a CO2-neutral steel industry: Justice aspects of CO2 capture and storage, biomass-and green hydrogen-based emission reductions. Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 2022, 88, 102598. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  277. Webler, T.; Tuler, S. Four Decades of Public Participation in Risk Decision Making. Risk Anal. 2018, 41, 503–518. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  278. Moon, W.-K.; Kahlor, L.A.; Olson, H.C. Understanding public support for carbon capture and storage policy: The roles of social capital, stakeholder perceptions, and perceived risk/benefit of technology. Energy Policy 2020, 139, 111312. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  279. Li, D.; Saraji, S.; Jiao, Z.; Zhang, Y. CO2 injection strategies for enhanced oil recovery and geological sequestration in a tight reservoir: An experimental study. Fuel 2020, 284, 119013. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  280. Gaurina-Međimurec, N.; KNovak-Mavar Majić, M. Carbon capture and storage (CCS): Technology, projects and mon-itoring review. Rud. Geol. Naft. Zb. 2018, 33, 1–15. [Google Scholar]
  281. Xinmin, S.; Debin, Q.; Cunyou, Z. Low cost development strategy for oilfields in China under low oil prices. Pet. Explor. Dev. 2021, 48, 1007–1018. [Google Scholar]
  282. Crain, D.M.; Benson, S.M.; Saltzer, S.D.; Durlofsky, L.J. An Integrated Framework for Optimal Monitoring and History Matching in CO2 storage Projects. Comput. Geosci. 2023, 1–15. [Google Scholar]
  283. Zhang, X.; Liao, Q.; Wang, Q.; Wang, L.; Qiu, R.; Liang, Y.; Zhang, H. How to Promote Zero-Carbon Oilfield Target? A Technical-Economic Model to Analyze the Economic and Environmental Benefits of Recycle-CCS-EOR Project. Energy 2021, 225, 120297. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  284. Li, Q.; Liu, G. Risk Assessment of the Geological Storage of CO2: A Review BT—Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Understanding Reservoir Behavior; Vishal, V., Singh, T.N., Eds.; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2016; pp. 249–284. ISBN 978-3-319-27019-7. [Google Scholar]
  285. Usman, M.; Rehman, A.; Saleem, F.; Abbas, A.; Eze, V.C.; Harvey, A. Synthesis of cyclic carbonates from CO2 cycloaddition to bio-based epoxides and glycerol: An overview of recent development. RSC Adv. 2023, 13, 22717–22743. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Figure 1. The CCS industry chain and its driving factors.
Figure 1. The CCS industry chain and its driving factors.
Sustainability 15 14486 g001
Figure 2. Different methods of carbon capture storage and utilization.
Figure 2. Different methods of carbon capture storage and utilization.
Sustainability 15 14486 g002
Figure 3. Historical data on CCS capacity.
Figure 3. Historical data on CCS capacity.
Sustainability 15 14486 g003
Figure 4. CCS as an alternative method for water injection.
Figure 4. CCS as an alternative method for water injection.
Sustainability 15 14486 g004
Table 1. An overview of the deployment of CCS projects over time.
Table 1. An overview of the deployment of CCS projects over time.
Early development (2000s) [2,3]
  • In the early 2000s, various pilot and demonstration projects were initiated to test the feasibility and effectiveness of CCS technologies.
  • Notable projects during this period include the Sleipner field project in Norway (started in 1996) and the Weyburn–Midale project in Canada (started in 2000).
Expansion and demonstration (2010s) [109]
  • In the 2010s, there was an increase in the number of large-scale CCS projects, focusing on demonstration and commercialization.
  • The Boundary Dam CCS project implemented in Canada (started in 2014) and the Petra Nova project in the United States (started in 2016) showcased the viability of CCS technologies on a larger scale.
Government support and initiatives [6,44]
  • Many countries started implementing supportive policies and funding programs to encourage the deployment of CCS projects.
  • Notable initiatives include the United Kingdom’s CCS Commercialization Program, the United States’ 45Q tax credit, and the European Union’s Innovation Fund.
International collaboration [2,3]
  • Various international collaborations and partnerships were formed to advance CCS deployment globally.
  • The Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF), established in 2003, promotes information sharing and collaboration among governments, industry, and research organizations.
Current developments [3,14]
  • Presently, CCS projects continue to be developed and implemented worldwide, with a focus on scaling-up deployment and reducing costs.
  • Countries like Norway, Canada, Australia, the United States, and the United Kingdom continue to lead in CCS deployment, while other nations are also actively exploring and implementing CCS projects
Table 2. Leading countries in the field of CCS.
Table 2. Leading countries in the field of CCS.
CountryStorage MethodStorage Capacity
Norway [6]Norway primarily focuses on offshore storage in geological formations, specifically within the North Sea.Norway has significant storage potential, with an estimated offshore storage capacity of up to 70 billion tons of CO2.
Canada [42]Canada has been exploring both onshore and offshore storage options. Onshore storage involves utilizing deep saline aquifers, while offshore storage is being studied in depleted oil and gas reservoirs.Canada has substantial potential for CO2 storage, with an estimated storage capacity exceeding 600 billion tones.
Australia [63]Australia has been investigating various storage options, including onshore storage in deep saline aquifers and offshore storage in depleted oil and gas fields.Australia has significant storage potential, with an estimated capacity exceeding 400 billion tones.
United States [69]The United States has been actively studying both onshore and offshore storage options. Onshore storage primarily focuses on deep saline aquifers, while offshore storage is being explored in depleted oil and gas fields.The U.S. has substantial storage potential, with an estimated capacity exceeding 13,000 billion tones.
United Kingdom [15]The UK has been investigating offshore storage in depleted oil and gas fields beneath the North Sea.The UK has significant storage potential, with an estimated offshore storage capacity exceeding 70 billion tones.
China [59]China has been increasing its efforts in CCS deployment and has several ongoing projects.The volume of CO2 storage in China is expected to reach approximately 8 million tons per year.
Saudi Arabia [2]Saudi Arabia has also started investing in CCS technology and has plans for underground CO2 storage facilities.The volume of CO2 storage in Saudi Arabia is estimated to be around 5 million tons per year.
Japan [54]Japan has been exploring CCS technology and has initiated pilot projects for underground CO2 storage.The volume of CO2 storage in Japan is projected to be approximately 4 million tons per year.
South Korea [3]South Korea has shown interest in CCS and has started implementing pilot projects for underground CO2 storage.The volume of CO2 storage in South Korea is expected to be around 3 million tons per year.
United Arab Emirates [74]The United Arab Emirates has also joined the CCS movement and has plans for underground CO2 storage facilities.The volume of CO2 storage in the United Arab Emirates is estimated to be approximately 2 million tons per year.
Table 3. Historical data on CCS capacity, with perspectives on its application in petroleum engineering [2,3,6,14,44,103,104,105,106,107,108,109].
Table 3. Historical data on CCS capacity, with perspectives on its application in petroleum engineering [2,3,6,14,44,103,104,105,106,107,108,109].
YearCCS Implementation Rate (in %)Applications in Petroleum Engineering
20000.10%Limited implementation in CO2-EOR [2].
20010.20%Continued use in CO2-EOR projects, with a slight increase in implementation [4].
20020.30%Further utilization of captured CO2 for enhanced oil recovery application [3].
20030.40%Ongoing use in CO2-EOR projects, contributing to increased oil production [14].
20040.50%The gradual growth of CCS implementation in CO2-EOR projects positively impacts oil production [6].
20050.60%Continued utilization of captured CO2 for enhanced oil recovery applications [74].
20060.70%Application of CCS in CO2-EOR projects, aiding in increased oil extraction from reservoirs [12].
20070.80%The steady growth of CCS usage in CO2-EOR operations supports enhanced oil recovery efforts [65].
20080.90%Continued implementation of CCS for enhanced oil production in certain reservoirs [44].
20091.00%The cumulative increase in CCS application contributes to enhanced oil recovery and carbon management [5].
20101.10%Further integration of CCS in CO2-EOR projects, aiding in sustainable oil production and emission reductions [1].
20111.20%Increasing implementation of CCS in CO2-EOR projects, supporting oil recovery and carbon mitigation strategies [104].
20121.30%Continued adoption of CCS in CO2-EOR for enhanced production and carbon management in petroleum engineering [103].
20131.40%Steady utilization of CCS for enhanced oil recovery, enabling sustainable oil production and reducing emissions [85].
20141.50%The growing incorporation of CCS in CO2-EOR projects to optimize reservoir management and reduce carbon footprints [78].
20151.60%Increasing implementation of CCS in CO2-EOR projects, supporting oil recovery and carbon mitigation strategies [7].
20161.70%Increased deployment of CCS technology, facilitating efficient CO2 utilization and improved reservoir performance [9].
20171.80%Advancements in CCS methods for reservoir monitoring, optimizing CO2-EOR projects in petroleum engineering [2].
20181.90%Continued integration of CCS in CO2-EOR, enhancing oil production and minimizing the environmental impact [6].
20192.00%Expanding the use of CCS for sustainable oil recovery, addressing emissions, and maximizing reservoir potential [44].
20202.10%Growing global focus on CCS for CO2-EOR, fostering sustainable practices in petroleum engineering [14].
20212.30%Increasing adoption of CCS to optimize oil recovery, meet emission targets, and support responsible petroleum operations [109].
20222.50%Maturing technology and wider implementation of CCS in petroleum engineering to ensure sustainable oil production [22].
20232.70%Continued growth of CCS in CO2-EOR projects, enhancing production efficiency and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions [86].
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Yasemi, S.; Khalili, Y.; Sanati, A.; Bagheri, M. Carbon Capture and Storage: Application in the Oil and Gas Industry. Sustainability 2023, 15, 14486.

AMA Style

Yasemi S, Khalili Y, Sanati A, Bagheri M. Carbon Capture and Storage: Application in the Oil and Gas Industry. Sustainability. 2023; 15(19):14486.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yasemi, Sara, Yasin Khalili, Ali Sanati, and Mohammadreza Bagheri. 2023. "Carbon Capture and Storage: Application in the Oil and Gas Industry" Sustainability 15, no. 19: 14486.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop