COVID-19 Lockdown and the Impact on Mobility, Air Quality, and Utility Consumption: A Case Study from Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Area
2.2. Methodology Framework
2.3. Data Acquisition
3. Local COVID-19 Safety Precautions
4. Results and Discussions
4.1. Impacts on Mobility Trends in Sharjah
4.2. Impacts on Air Quality in Sharjah
4.2.1. Satellite Image-Based Air Quality
4.2.2. Ground-Based Air Quality
4.3. Impact of COVID-19 on Utility Consumption
4.3.1. Electricity Consumption
4.3.2. Water Consumption
4.3.3. Gas Consumption
4.4. Relationship between Mobility and Air Quality
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Date||SO2||NO2||CO||O3||PM10||Wind Speed (m/s)|
|1 January 2018 00:00:00 UTC||3.54||71.75||1.52||0.63||129.00||0.66|
|1 January 2018 01:00:00 UTC||1.37||77.08||1.45||0.03||136.00||1.14|
|1 January 2018 02:00:00 UTC||1.17||68.25||1.75||0.81||182.25||0.66|
|1 January 2018 03:00:00 UTC||1.17||47.80||1.72||0.14||201.00||0.39|
|1 January 2018 04:00:00 UTC||0.86||45.80||1.51||2.49||187.00||0.26|
|1 January 2018 05:00:00 UTC||1.03||51.50||1.57||0.12||168.00||0.17|
|1 January 2018 06:00:00 UTC||0.47||52.05||1.34||0.92||124.00||0.14|
|1 January 2018 07:00:00 UTC||0.85||53.48||1.27||0.00||131.00||0.26|
|SP/PH||Week #||Dates||Safety Policies Implemented|
|SP1||Week 10||1 March||Suspension of all nurseries in Sharjah|
|SP2||Week 11||8 March||Closure of schools and universities|
|SP3||Week 12||15 March||Remote work system enforced in Sharjah|
|SP3||Week 12||16 March||Closure of recreational activities and parks|
|SP3||Week 12||16 March||UAE bans prayers at all places of worship|
|SP4||Week 13||24 March||Closure of malls, shopping centers, and restaurants|
|SP4||Week 13||26 March||The NDP was launched (8:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m. travel restrictions)|
|SP5||Week 14||29 March||Activation of remote work (only 30% in-person capacity)|
|SP6||Week 19||3 May||Reopening of malls, shopping centers, and restaurants|
|PH1||Week 22||24 May||Beginning of Eid al-Fitr (four days holiday)|
|SP7||Week 25||14 June||30% (max.) of government employees back to offices|
|SP8||Week 26||24 June||The NDP was completed (10 h travel restrictions were lifted)|
|SP8||Week 26||24 June||Reopening recreational activities and parks|
|SP9||Week 27||28 June||50% of Sharjah government employees back to offices|
|SP9||Week 27||1 July||Reopening of mosques and other places of worship|
|SP10||Week 30||19 July||100% of government employees back to offices|
|PH2||Week 31||30 July||Beginning of Eid al-Adha (five day holiday)|
|SP11||Week 32||8 August||Reopening of all public beaches in Sharjah|
|PH3||Week 35||23 August||Islamic New Year (one day holiday)|
|SP12||Week 35||27 August||Nurseries and childcare centers are allowed to re-open|
|PH4||Week 44||29 October||Commemoration of Prophet Mohammad’s birthday (one day holiday)|
|SP13||Week 45||1 November||Resumption of social events in Sharjah|
|PH5||Week 49||1 December||Commemoration Day (one day holiday)|
|PH 5||Week 49||2 December||UAE’s National Day|
|SP14||Week 6||9 February 2021||Reduced capacity at malls and recreational activities|
|SP15||Week 7||14 February 2021||Implementation of remote work for governmental employees in Sharjah|
|SP16||Week 15||12 April 2021||Beginning of Ramadan holy month|
|PH 6||Week 19||12 May 2021||Beginning of Eid al-Fitr (four day holiday)|
|People’s Mobility Sector||before vs. during COVID-19||before vs. after COVID-19||buring vs. after COVID-19|
|Retail and Recreational||2.16 × 10−22||1.10 × 10−3||4.75 × 10−32|
|Groceries and Pharmacies||1.06 × 10−18||0.080||6.03 × 10−33|
|Parks||7.11 × 10−31||1.12 × 10−10||7.71 × 10−74|
|Transit Stations||5.98 × 10−22||6.43 × 10−11||1.60 × 10−91|
|Workplace||2.35 × 10−33||1.68 × 10−17||6.57 × 10−18|
|Residential||3.84 × 10−29||1.38 × 10−05||2.44 × 10−43|
|Station No.||Spearman Test * for Wind Speed||Spearman Test * for Wind Direction|
|Station Number||Description of Location||Air Quality Observation||Google Earth Image Showing Location|
|S1 Station||The station is located near an intersection at major expressways in Sharjah (Al-Dhaid Road), which is usually busy with passenger cars. The traffic volume was significantly reduced during the lockdown.||Noticeable reduction in NO2, O3, and PM10 during the COVID-19 lockdown.|
|S2 Station||The station is located in a remote lightly built-up area.||No major changes in air quality measurements during the COVID-19 lockdown compared to the pre-lockdown period.|
|S3 Station||The station is located on a local road near a parking area for trucks.||PM10 showed a noticeable reduction during the COIVD-19 lockdown compared to the pre-lockdown period.|
|S5 Station||The station is located between two busy roads, i.e., Al-Dhaid Road and University City Road.||Both PM10 and NO2 showed noticeable reductions during the COVID-19 lockdown compared to the pre-lockdown period.|
|S6 Station||The station is located on the outskirts of the city between two busy roads. The station is surrounded by some industrial establishments.||PM10 declined and NO2 increased during the COVID-19 lockdown compared to the pre-lockdown period.|
|Retail and Recreation||Grocery and Pharmacy||Parks||Transit||Workplace||Residential|
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Shanableh, A.; Al-Ruzouq, R.; Khalil, M.A.; Gibril, M.B.A.; Hamad, K.; Alhosani, M.; Stietiya, M.H.; Bardan, M.A.; Mansoori, S.A.; Hammouri, N.A. COVID-19 Lockdown and the Impact on Mobility, Air Quality, and Utility Consumption: A Case Study from Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Sustainability 2022, 14, 1767. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031767
Shanableh A, Al-Ruzouq R, Khalil MA, Gibril MBA, Hamad K, Alhosani M, Stietiya MH, Bardan MA, Mansoori SA, Hammouri NA. COVID-19 Lockdown and the Impact on Mobility, Air Quality, and Utility Consumption: A Case Study from Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Sustainability. 2022; 14(3):1767. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031767Chicago/Turabian Style
Shanableh, Abdallah, Rami Al-Ruzouq, Mohamad Ali Khalil, Mohamed Barakat A. Gibril, Khaled Hamad, Mohamad Alhosani, Mohammed Hashem Stietiya, Mayyada Al Bardan, Saeed Al Mansoori, and Nezar Atalla Hammouri. 2022. "COVID-19 Lockdown and the Impact on Mobility, Air Quality, and Utility Consumption: A Case Study from Sharjah, United Arab Emirates" Sustainability 14, no. 3: 1767. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031767