Achieving Learning Outcomes of Emergency Remote Learning to Sustain Higher Education during Crises: An Empirical Study of Malaysian Undergraduates
2. Literature Review
2.1. ICT Infrastructure for Emergency Remote Learning
2.2. Training, Support and Resources for Emergency Remote Learning
2.3. Discipline for Emergency Remote Learning
2.4. Actual or Perceived Advantages of Emergency Remote Learning
2.5. Actual or Perceived Disadvantages of Emergency Remote Learning
2.6. Learning Outcomes
2.7. Income, Geographical Location, Sex and Emergency Remote Learning
3. Materials and Methods
3.2.1. Control Variables
3.2.2. Income and Geographical Location Variables
3.2.3. Development of Questionnaire
3.3. Data-Collection Procedures
3.4. Data Analysis
4.1. Metric Quality Assessment
4.2. Descriptive Statistics, ANOVA, and Two-Stage Least Squares
4.3. Two-Way Interaction between Challenges and Learning Outcomes
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Residential location||Rural area||47||13.4|
|Future preference index||0.428||0.259||0||1|
|Learning outcomes index||0.530||0.209||0||1|
|ICT infrastructure index||0.708||0.205||0||1|
|Training, support and resources index||0.595||0.187||0||1|
|ICT infrastructure||0.017||0.283 *||0.666 **|
|Training, support and resources||0.137 *||0.070||0.164|
|Male vs. Female||Urban vs. Semi-Urban||Urban vs. Rural||Semi-Urban vs. Rural||T20 vs. M40||T20 vs. B40||M40 vs. B40|
|ICT infrastructure||−0.014||0.028||0.090 **||0.062 *||0.049 *||0.124 **||0.076 **|
|Training, support and resources||−0.041 *||0.028||0.000||−0.028||−0.001||0.052||0.053 *|
|Model 1||Model 1.1||Model 1.2||Model 1.3||Model 1.4||Model 1.5|
|Learning outcomes (LO)||0.378 **||-||-||-||-||-|
|ICT infrastructure (INFRA)||0.062||−0.219 **||0.054||0.021||0.022||0.064|
|Training, support, and resources (TSR)||−0.024||−0.006||−0.350 **||0.003||−0.004||−0.023|
|Discipline (DISC)||0.118||0108||0.125 *||−0.199||0.134 *||0.143 *|
|Advantages (ADV)||0.165 *||0.181 *||0.220 **||0.269 **||0.008||0.185 *|
|Disadvantages (DISADV)||−0.480 **||−0.482 **||−0.498 **||−0.498 **||−0.508 **||−0.787 **|
|INFRA × LO||-||0.478 **||-||-||-||-|
|TSR × LO||-||-||0.550 **||-||-||-|
|DISC × LO||-||-||-||0.512 **||-||-|
|ADV × LO||-||-||-||-||0.484 **||-|
|DISADV × LO||-||-||-||-||-||0.462 **|
|Constant||0.306 **||0.507 **||0.494 **||0.478 **||0.484 **||0.519 **|
|Wald χ2 (p-value)||-||0.000||0.000||0.000||0.000||0.000|
|Mean of variance inflation factor||1.83||2.09||2.28||2.43||2.43||1.98|
|Ramsey’s RESET (p-value)||0.363||0.395||0.501||0.419||0.434||0.059|
|No. of observations||352||352||352||352||352||352|
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Looi, K.H.; Wye, C.-K.; Abdul Bahri, E.N. Achieving Learning Outcomes of Emergency Remote Learning to Sustain Higher Education during Crises: An Empirical Study of Malaysian Undergraduates. Sustainability 2022, 14, 1598. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031598
Looi KH, Wye C-K, Abdul Bahri EN. Achieving Learning Outcomes of Emergency Remote Learning to Sustain Higher Education during Crises: An Empirical Study of Malaysian Undergraduates. Sustainability. 2022; 14(3):1598. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031598Chicago/Turabian Style
Looi, Kim Hoe, Chung-Khain Wye, and Elya Nabila Abdul Bahri. 2022. "Achieving Learning Outcomes of Emergency Remote Learning to Sustain Higher Education during Crises: An Empirical Study of Malaysian Undergraduates" Sustainability 14, no. 3: 1598. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031598