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Article

How Many Electric Vehicles Are Needed to Reach CO2 Emissions Goals? A Case Study from Montreal, Canada

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Department of Civil, Geological and Mining Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, 2500 Chemin de Polytechnique, Montreal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada
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Concordia Institute for Information Systems Engineering, Concordia University, 1515 Ste-Catherine St. W., EV 7.640, Montreal, QC H3G 2W1, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Adriano Alessandrini and Fabio Cignini
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1441; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031441
Received: 10 December 2021 / Revised: 11 January 2022 / Accepted: 19 January 2022 / Published: 27 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Using New Technologies to Make Urban Transport Sustainable)
In the province of Quebec, Canada where the electricity is nearly carbon-free, the road transport sector represents 35.6% of all emissions. As such, electric vehicles (EVs) have been proposed as a means to reduce such emissions. However, it is not clear how many conventional vehicles (CVs) would need to change to electric in order to meet the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction target of reducing 1990 CO2 emissions by 37.5% by 2030 in the province. In fact, various considerations exist such as which vehicles will change and how those vehicles are used. This articleaddresses this issue in the case of Montreal, Canada. First, to create a baseline, direct emissions by all personal vehicles in Montreal in 2018 are calculated using data from the 2018 origin-destination (OD) survey and provincial vehicle registration. Next, five scenarios are studied to calculate the variations in the number of EVs needed in the fleet in order to achieve provincial targets. The most optimistic scenario shows that roughly 49% of the fleet would need to change. The most pessimistic scenario estimates that almost 73% of the fleet would need to be converted to EVs. It can be concluded that the strategy used can have a great impact on how many vehicles need to be replaced in the fleet. However, all simulations show that the necessary replacements are far from negligible. It must surely be coupled with other actions such as reducing veh.km travelled (vkmt) or increasing public transport use. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicles; vehicle ownership; GHG emissions; CO2 emissions; emission targets electric vehicles; vehicle ownership; GHG emissions; CO2 emissions; emission targets
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MDPI and ACS Style

Laffont, P.; Waygood, E.O.D.; Patterson, Z. How Many Electric Vehicles Are Needed to Reach CO2 Emissions Goals? A Case Study from Montreal, Canada. Sustainability 2022, 14, 1441. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031441

AMA Style

Laffont P, Waygood EOD, Patterson Z. How Many Electric Vehicles Are Needed to Reach CO2 Emissions Goals? A Case Study from Montreal, Canada. Sustainability. 2022; 14(3):1441. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031441

Chicago/Turabian Style

Laffont, Pierre, E. Owen D. Waygood, and Zachary Patterson. 2022. "How Many Electric Vehicles Are Needed to Reach CO2 Emissions Goals? A Case Study from Montreal, Canada" Sustainability 14, no. 3: 1441. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031441

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