Food Insufficiency among Job-Loss Households during the Pandemic: The Role of Food Assistance Programs
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Design, Settings, and Participants
2.3. Spatial and Statistical Analysis
3.1. Descriptions of Food-Insufficient Households and Preditor Variables
3.2. Results of Logistic Regression Models
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|Demographics||Food Insufficient Households||Food Sufficient Households|
|Minimum, Maximum||18, 88||18, 88|
|Minimum, Maximum||1, 7||1, 7|
|Minimum, Maximum||1, 8||1, 8|
|Minimum, Maximum||0, 5||0, 5|
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|Sample with Missing Data |
(n = 299,301)
|Gender||Male: 39.7%||Female: 60.3%|
|Race||White: 78.9%||Non-White: 21.1%|
|Ethnicity *||Non-Hispanic: 88.1%||Hispanic: 11.9%|
|Sample without missing data (n = 229,668)||Mean||SD||Minimum||Maximum|
|Gender||Male: 39.8%||Female: 60.2%|
|Race *||White: 80.5%||Non-White: 19.5%|
|Ethnicity *||Non-Hispanic: 89.1%||Hispanic: 10.9%|
|Food insufficiency||1-Food insufficient (in pandemic)||Yes||18.6%||No||81.4%|
|SNAP||Received benefits from SNAP or the Food Stamp Program||Yes||15.7%||No||84.3%|
|Children program||Got free food from programs for children||Yes||5.1%||No||94.9%|
|Community||Got free food from community programs||Yes||7.5%||No||92.5%|
|Pre food insufficiency||1-Food insufficient (before pandemic)||Yes||13.9%||No||86.1%|
|Demographics||% Food Insufficient Householdsbefore Pandemic||% Food Insufficient Households during Pandemic|
|Education||Less than high school or high school||21.8%||26.8%|
|Some college or associate degree||12.6%||18.9%|
|Bachelor’s degree or higher||4.9%||7.5%|
|Model 1||Model 2||Model 3|
|All (n = 229,668)||Pre food insufficient |
(n = 20,964)
|Households with children (n = 91,031)|
|Individual level independent variables Odds Ratio|
|SNAP||1.107 *||0.755 *||0.881 *|
|95% CI||1.106, 1.108||0.754, 0.756||0.88, 0.882|
|Children programs||0.993 *||0.906 *||1.077 *|
|95% CI||0.991, 0.994||0.904, 0.909||1.075, 1.079|
|Community programs||1.309 *||1.07 *||1.23 *|
|95% CI||1.307, 1.31||1.067, 1.072||1.228, 1.232|
|Age||0.985 *||1.002 *||0.991 *|
|95% CI||0.985, 0.985||1.002, 1.002||0.991, 0.991|
|Gender (reference-female)||1.091 *||1.287 *||1.043 *|
|95% CI||1.09,1.092||1.285, 1.289||1.041, 1.044|
|1-Black||1.125 *||0.977 *||1.1 *|
|95% CI||1.123, 1.126||0.975, 0.979||1.099, 1.102|
|2-Asian||0.689 *||0.811 *||0.691 *|
|95% CI||0.688, 0.69||0.808, 0.814||0.689, 0.693|
|3-Other races||1.158 *||0.951 *||1.16 *|
|95% CI||1.156, 1.159||0.949, 0.953||1.158, 1.162|
|Ethnicity (reference-non-Hispanic)||0.894 *||0.873 *||0.861 *|
|95% CI||0.894, 0.895||0.872, 0.875||0.86, 0.862|
|Education||0.895 *||0.979 *||0.903 *|
|95% CI||0.895, 0.895||0.979, 0.98||0.903, 0.904|
|Income||0.774 *||0.898 *||0.782 *|
|95% CI||0.774, 0.775||0.898, 0.899||0.782, 0.782|
|Pre food sufficiency (reference-yes)||26.892 *||N/A||21.255|
|26.869, 26.915||21.23, 21.281|
|Children (reference-no children)||1.136 *||0.985 *||N/A|
|95% CI||1.135, 1.137||0.984, 0.987|
|Omnibus Tests (model significance)||<0.001||<0.001||<0.001|
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Li, Y.; Li, D.; King, C. Food Insufficiency among Job-Loss Households during the Pandemic: The Role of Food Assistance Programs. Sustainability 2022, 14, 15433. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142215433
Li Y, Li D, King C. Food Insufficiency among Job-Loss Households during the Pandemic: The Role of Food Assistance Programs. Sustainability. 2022; 14(22):15433. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142215433Chicago/Turabian Style
Li, Yingru, Dapeng Li, and Christian King. 2022. "Food Insufficiency among Job-Loss Households during the Pandemic: The Role of Food Assistance Programs" Sustainability 14, no. 22: 15433. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142215433