Major ports worldwide suffered from various problems such as labor shortage, port congestion, and global supply chain disruptions during COVID-19. To ensure stable operations of ports in such scenarios, one option is to adopt fully automated terminals. This study aimed at evaluating the performance of fully automated terminals compared with that of non-fully automated ones during the disrupted logistics due to coronavirus. Four ports that simultaneously operate both fully and non-fully automated terminals were selected. The performance of the target terminals was measured based on quantitative factors: throughput, number of ship arrivals, and berthing time. The results showed that the fully automated container terminals present better operational performance than the non-fully automated terminals. The former achieved large increments in the throughput, small decreases in the berthing time per ship, and increases in the number of ship arrivals. Moreover, there were economic benefits, revealing that the total terminal profit at the fully automated terminals was significantly increased, whereas that at the non-fully automated ones decreased based on berthing times. Therefore, fully automated terminals can be considered as alternatives for responding flexibly and stably during crises such as COVID-19.
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