# Research on Flow Field Characteristics in Water Jet Nozzle and Surface Damage Caused by Target Impact

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Theoretical Model and Calculation Method

#### 2.1. Geometry and Meshing

#### 2.2. Boundary Conditions and Parameter Settings

## 3. Results and Analysis of Numerical Calculation

#### 3.1. Analysis of Flow Field Calculation Results

#### 3.2. Numerical Simulation Analysis of Matrix Damage

^{2}reaches more than 0.99. The overall time is 0.1 s to minimize the effect of accumulated damage on the surface of the material.

^{−3}mm and producing tiny pits. The material in the depth direction pushes and accumulates in the breadth direction, forming a crater-shaped impact corrosion surface.

## 4. Experimental Analysis

#### 4.1. Experimental Design

#### 4.2. Analysis of Experimental Results

## 5. Conclusions

- (1)
- The water jet is divided into three regions along the axial direction: the cavitation jet in the nozzle, the free jet, and the stagnation zone. It is divided into a core area and an atomization area along the radial direction. The distribution of turbulent kinetic energy in the atomization area can be used as the basis for judging the degree of jet diffusion and the rate of energy decay. The peak point of turbulent kinetic energy can be used as the boundary between the inner and outer jets.
- (2)
- After the water jet impactes the surface of the target, a crater-like crater is formed. With the increase of impact pressure, the overall deformation showes an increasing trend. And the increasing trend is obviously rising. Without considering the accumulated damage, the jet pressure is the most important factor.
- (3)
- The depression of the erosion area is caused by the destruction of the material by the stagnation pressure. Accumulated damage has a serious impact on the surface erosion damage of the target.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**Setting of inlet boundary conditions. (

**a**) Velocity field of the flow field in the nozzle. (

**b**) Inlet pressure curve.

**Figure 3.**Calculation results of the crushing model and the atomization model. (

**a**) Numerical simulation of KH crushing model. (

**b**) Numerical simulation of KH-RT atomization model.

**Figure 4.**Cloud diagram of the flow field in the nozzle. (

**a**) The velocity vector cloud diagram of the flow field in the nozzle. (

**b**) Cloud diagram of the volume fraction of the flow field in the nozzle.

**Figure 5.**The spatial distribution cloud diagram of the velocity field of the ultra-high-pressure water jet impacting the target body.

**Figure 11.**SEM images of the material surface after water jet erosion at different pressures. (

**a**) 200 MPa pressure. (

**b**) 240 MPa pressure. (

**c**) 300 MPa pressure.

Test Group | Number of Grid Cells | Maximum Pressure of the Impacted Surface of the Target (MPa) |
---|---|---|

A1 | 324,651 | 59.439 |

A2 | 632,218 | 71.965 |

A3 | 975,376 | 79.731 |

A4 | 1,262,945 | 82.686 |

A5 | 1,794,662 | 83.127 |

A6 | 2,036,387 | 83.238 |

A7 | 2,560,398 | 83.367 |

Broken Mode | Jet Characteristics |
---|---|

Rayleigh broken | liquid Weber number ${\mathrm{w}}_{\mathrm{eL}}>8$ and the air Weber number ${\mathrm{w}}_{\mathrm{eg}}<0.4$ |

Atomization and crushing | Air Weber number ${\mathrm{w}}_{\mathrm{eg}}>40.3$ |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Zhang, Q.; Shi, Z.; Shi, W.; Xie, Z.; Tan, L.; Yang, Y.
Research on Flow Field Characteristics in Water Jet Nozzle and Surface Damage Caused by Target Impact. *Sustainability* **2022**, *14*, 9074.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159074

**AMA Style**

Zhang Q, Shi Z, Shi W, Xie Z, Tan L, Yang Y.
Research on Flow Field Characteristics in Water Jet Nozzle and Surface Damage Caused by Target Impact. *Sustainability*. 2022; 14(15):9074.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159074

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Zhang, Qinghong, Zhouhao Shi, Weidong Shi, Zhanshan Xie, Linwei Tan, and Yongfei Yang.
2022. "Research on Flow Field Characteristics in Water Jet Nozzle and Surface Damage Caused by Target Impact" *Sustainability* 14, no. 15: 9074.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159074