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Article

A Novel Travel Time Estimation Model for Modeling a Green Time-Dependent Vehicle Routing Problem in Food Supply Chain

1
Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran 1417935840, Iran
2
School of Business, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
3
Centre for Supply Chain Improvement, The University of Derby, Derby DE22 1GB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Banu Yetkin Ekren, Emel Aktas, Nicky Yates and Yiğit Kazançoğlu
Sustainability 2022, 14(14), 8633; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148633
Received: 8 June 2022 / Revised: 3 July 2022 / Accepted: 5 July 2022 / Published: 14 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart and Sustainable Food Supply Chain Management)
In a green time-dependent vehicle routing optimisation problem, if the travel time is not well estimated, the values of the objective function (emissions) for different solutions will be obtained with less accuracy, which leads to wrong decision making. The purpose of this paper is to propose an accurate travel-time estimation model. The model was developed by considering the different multiple traffic modes through a continuous approach. Moreover, in this model, it was assumed that the route between two nodes was a combination of different segments (i.e., expressway, boulevard, main street, auxiliary street, alley, etc.), and the speed level varied along the route and depended on the segments of the route. Congestion is a key factor affecting the delivery time of food to customers. To assess the reliability of the model, data from the delivery and sales network of the oldest and biggest beverage manufacturer in Iran was used. A new congestion pattern was identified based on the analysis of 272 routes and several rules were described that proved the above assumption about congestion. The travel time estimated for 30 random vehicles with random departure times were compared with data from Google Maps through statistical analyses. View Full-Text
Keywords: vehicle routing problem; intermediate node; green transportation; multiple traffic modes; food supply chain vehicle routing problem; intermediate node; green transportation; multiple traffic modes; food supply chain
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MDPI and ACS Style

Asgharizadeh, E.; Jooybar, S.; Mahdiraji, H.A.; Garza-Reyes, J.A. A Novel Travel Time Estimation Model for Modeling a Green Time-Dependent Vehicle Routing Problem in Food Supply Chain. Sustainability 2022, 14, 8633. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148633

AMA Style

Asgharizadeh E, Jooybar S, Mahdiraji HA, Garza-Reyes JA. A Novel Travel Time Estimation Model for Modeling a Green Time-Dependent Vehicle Routing Problem in Food Supply Chain. Sustainability. 2022; 14(14):8633. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148633

Chicago/Turabian Style

Asgharizadeh, Ezzatollah, Sobhan Jooybar, Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji, and Jose Arturo Garza-Reyes. 2022. "A Novel Travel Time Estimation Model for Modeling a Green Time-Dependent Vehicle Routing Problem in Food Supply Chain" Sustainability 14, no. 14: 8633. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148633

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