Energy, Environmental Impact and Indoor Environmental Quality of Add-Ons in Buildings
2. Methodological Approach
- For the pre-retrofit stage:
- Building energy audit and collection of whole information regarding architectural aspects; building envelope thermo-physics; HVAC-system and equipment characterization; building uses and thermal zones; historical energy consumption; users judgments, through in-field measurements, inspections, and stakeholders’ interviews.
- For the post-retrofit stage:
- Definition of HVAC-envelope system refurbishment according to the main issues identified in step 1.a and implementation in the numerical model defined in step 1.b.
- Analysis of energy and environmental impact.
- Improvement of IEQ in terms of thermo-hygrometric comfort, daylighting evaluation, and indoor air quality.
- Development of Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) with questionnaires to identify the level of satisfaction of both administrators and occupants.
3. Case Study: The Building Renovation of Athens Dormitory
- the addition of new volumes;
- the replacement of the heating, cooling, and Domestic Hot Water (DHW) systems;
- the addition of thermal insulation for the building envelope;
- the addition of two renewable energy systems;
- the replacement of the electrical equipment and lighting system.
- Geometry and spaces reorganization.
- Compositions (i.e., materials, thicknesses, and layers) of the opaque and transparent building envelope elements.
- HVAC types and their operation.
3.1. Modification of Space and Geometry
3.2. Thermo-Physical Properties of the New Building Envelope
- the external walls have a thermal transmittance (Uvalue) of 0.29 W/m2K (pre-retrofit Uvalue = 1.69 W/m2K) and consist, starting from the outside, of 1 cm of inner plaster, 10 cm of thermal insulation (thermal conductivity 0.034 W/mK), 18 cm of brick and 1 cm of exterior plaster.
- The underground walls are made of 6 cm of polystyrene thermal insulation, 23 cm of reinforced concrete and 2.5 cm of plaster, with a total thermal transmittance equal to 0.48 W/m2K (pre-retrofit Uvalue = 1.69 W/m2K).
- The ground floor (Uvalue = 0.29 W/m2K), starting from the inside, has the following layers: 2 cm of ceramic tiles, 6 cm of concrete, 10 cm of polystyrene thermal insulation, 20 cm of reinforced concrete (pre-retrofit Uvalue = 2.07 W/m2K).
- The flat roof has a thermal transmittance of 0.28 W/m2K (pre-retrofit Uvalue = 1.06 W/m2K).and is composed of 1 cm of ceramic tiles, and 15 cm of concrete, 10 cm of polystyrene thermal insulation, 15 cm of reinforced concrete and 2 cm of internal plaster.
3.3. HVAC System and Operation
- autonomous systems serve the two double rooms with ER placed on the ground floor and the two double rooms with SS on the first floor;
- a centralized system that serves the other rooms and the common areas.
4.1. Energy and Environmental Analysis
- at least A class, for new buildings and,
- at least B+, for an existing building after partial/deep renovation.
4.2. IEQ Evaluation
4.2.1. Thermo-Hygrometric Comfort
- 31 October: on which the heating systems are turned off, to examine the passive effect of the new building envelope on the indoor thermal comfort.
- 1 July: during which the cooling systems are operating (refurbished phase), to investigate how the addition of the cooling system can affect indoor comfort levels.
4.2.2. Daylighting Evaluation
4.2.3. Indoor Air Quality
4.3. Post-Occupancy Evaluation and Future Steps
- user comfort (thermal, visual, living space, managing of bioclimatic environment, ventilation, acoustic, etc.).
- sustainable aspects (thermal insulation, plants powered by renewable energy sources, materials, etc.);
- technical aspects (seismic safety, evacuation plan, fire safety, etc.)
- social aspect (benefits to the whole urban district, aesthetic aspect, etc.).
- evaluation of the post-occupancy surveys,
- comparisons with the degree of satisfaction/expectations before the deep renovation, following the structure reported as an example in Table 8, regarding four main fields of interests,
- development of guidelines on optimized building management based on user responses.
Conflicts of Interest
|BEPS||Building Energy Performance Simulation|
|COP||Coefficient of Performance [Whth/Whel]|
|DHW||Domestic Hot Water|
|EER||Energy Efficiency Ratio [Whth/Whel]|
|EPBD||Energy Performance of Building Directive|
|FCU||Fan Coil Unit|
|GET||inteGrated Efficient Technologies|
|HVAC||Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning,|
|IEQ||Indoor Environmental Quality|
|PMV||Predicted Mean Vote|
|POE||Post Occupancy Evaluation|
|PPD||Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfaction|
|Pro-GET-OnE||Proactive synergy of integrated Efficient Technologies on buildings’ Envelopes|
|RES||Renewable Energy Sources|
|SCOP||Seasonal Coefficient of Performance [Whth/Whel]|
|SEER||Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio [Whth/Whel]|
|ppm||Part per million|
|Uf||Frame Thermal Transmittance|
|Ug||Glass Thermal Transmittance|
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|Wall Area [m2]||1808.96||180.52||724.06||180.72||723.67|
|Window Opening Area [m2]||649.38||53.86||271.18||51.93||272.42|
|Window-Wall Ratio [%]||35.90||29.83||37.45||28.73||37.64|
|Wall Area [m2]||2019.49||219.98||789.80||219.87||789.83|
|Window Opening Area [m2]||884.40||30.21||407.49||31.56||415.13|
|Window-Wall Ratio [%]||43.79||13.73||51.59||14.35||52.56|
|Specific Heat [J/kg K]||Thermal Transmittance [W/m2K]|
|Transparent envelope||Single clear glass||0.004||5.9||0.85||0.89||1.30 m × 1.10 m or 1.00 m × 2.30 m in the rooms|
|5.70 m × 2.30 m balcony door in common zones|
|2.16 m × 0.6 m in the basement|
|U-Value of||Pre-Retrofit Stage||Post-Retrofit Stage||Percentage Variation|
|External walls [W/m2K]||1.69||0.29||−83%|
|Ground floor [W/m2K]||2.07||0.30||−86%|
|Flat roof [W/m2K]||1.06||0.28||−74%|
|Underground walls [W/m2K]||1.69||0.49||−71%|
|Window frames [W/m2K]||5.87||2.2||−63%|
|Window glass [W/m2K]||5.87||1.7||−71%|
|Centralized system||Heating and cooling services|
|4 air to water HP connected to in-room FCU||Heating capacity: 53.0 kW;|
Cooling capacity: 53.3 kW;
|2 water storage||Capacity: 500 L|
|Gas heating boiler connected to hot water radiators||low-temperature boiler (92/42/EEC)|
Nominal capacity: 285 kW
|Gas boiler connected to solar collectors||Efficiency of the gas boiler: 0.95|
Number of solar collectors: 38
Area of a single solar collector: 1.8 m2
Tilt angle: 45°
|Controlled mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and air filtration||5 fan speeds|
Air flow: 15 ÷ 41 m3/h
Thermal efficiency: 82 ÷ 69%
Absorbed power 4.6 ÷ 20.6 W
|Controlled mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and air filtration||Air flow: 590 m3/h||Common areas|
|Autonomous system||Heating and cooling services|
|4 air to air HP||Heating capacity: 3.18 kW;|
Cooling capacity: 2.14 kW;
|2 double rooms at ground floor and 2 double rooms at the first floor.|
|Controlled mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and air filtration||Total flow air provides to each room: 400 m3/h|
Recirculated flow air from each room: 100 m3/h
Absorbed power 1.16 kW
|Heating Period (Set-Point Temperature 20 °C)|
|Bedrooms and common areas—air to water HP||From 7:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., from 5 p.m. to 10 p.m., from 1 November to 31 March|
|Bathrooms and common areas—gas heating boiler||From 7:00 a.m. to 11 a.m., and form 6:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m., from 1 November to 31 March|
|Ground floor and first floor double rooms—air to air HP||From 7:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., from 5 p.m. to 10 p.m., from 1 November to 31 March|
|Cooling Period (Set-Point Temperature 26 °C)|
|Bedrooms and common areas—air to water HP||From 12:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m., from 1 June to 30 September|
|Ground floor and first floor double rooms—air to air HP||From 12:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m., from 1 June to 30 September|
|Mechanical Ventilation Activation|
|Bedrooms||From 7:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., from 5:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m., from 1 November to 31 March|
From 12:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m., from 1 April to 31 October
|Satisfaction Rate (%)|
|Pre Retrofit||Post Retrofit|
|Indoor air quality|
|Sustainable aspects||Thermal insulation|
|Renewable energy sources|
|Technical aspects||Seismic safety|
|Social aspect||Space addition|
|Urban district advantages|
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Mastellone, M.; Ruggiero, S.; Papadaki, D.; Barmparesos, N.; Fotopoulou, A.; Ferrante, A.; Assimakopoulos, M.N. Energy, Environmental Impact and Indoor Environmental Quality of Add-Ons in Buildings. Sustainability 2022, 14, 7605. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137605
Mastellone M, Ruggiero S, Papadaki D, Barmparesos N, Fotopoulou A, Ferrante A, Assimakopoulos MN. Energy, Environmental Impact and Indoor Environmental Quality of Add-Ons in Buildings. Sustainability. 2022; 14(13):7605. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137605Chicago/Turabian Style
Mastellone, Margherita, Silvia Ruggiero, Dimitra Papadaki, Nikolaos Barmparesos, Anastasia Fotopoulou, Annarita Ferrante, and Margarita Niki Assimakopoulos. 2022. "Energy, Environmental Impact and Indoor Environmental Quality of Add-Ons in Buildings" Sustainability 14, no. 13: 7605. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137605