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Article

Mainstreaming Community Energy: Is the Renewable Energy Directive a Driver for Renewable Energy Communities in Germany and Italy?

1
Research Center for Sustainability, Freie Universität Berlin, Ihnestrasse 22, D-14195 Berlin, Germany
2
Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Lungotevere Thaon di Revel 76, 00196 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miguel Amado
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7181; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127181
Received: 3 May 2022 / Revised: 2 June 2022 / Accepted: 9 June 2022 / Published: 11 June 2022
By 30 June 2021, EU Member States were expected to transpose the recast Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) which includes provisions for renewable energy communities (RECs) and to develop an enabling framework to promote the development of RECs. Although there is a growing number of studies analysing the emergence of various forms of community energy, comparative studies investigating the transposition and creation of enabling frameworks for RECs in a multi-level governance (MLG) perspective are scarce. This article examines the transposition in Germany and Italy and compares elements of the respective enabling frameworks. Key methods include context and MLG analysis combined with methods of descriptive (legal) studies. Insights and participatory observations of the stakeholder desks established in the Horizon2020 project COME RES complement the spectrum of methods deployed. Although community energy development is more advanced in Germany, the transposition of the RED II provisions has been slow and piecemeal so far. Conversely, in Italy, RED II played a catalyst role; the transposition has been rather dynamic and encouraged a continuous growth of REC initiatives. Nevertheless, a widespread uptake of RECs requires structural adjustments of the governance system in both countries and attention to MLG as well as vertical policy coordination. View Full-Text
Keywords: European Union; renewable energy communities; community energy; energy policy; multi-level governance European Union; renewable energy communities; community energy; energy policy; multi-level governance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Krug, M.; Di Nucci, M.R.; Caldera, M.; De Luca, E. Mainstreaming Community Energy: Is the Renewable Energy Directive a Driver for Renewable Energy Communities in Germany and Italy? Sustainability 2022, 14, 7181. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127181

AMA Style

Krug M, Di Nucci MR, Caldera M, De Luca E. Mainstreaming Community Energy: Is the Renewable Energy Directive a Driver for Renewable Energy Communities in Germany and Italy? Sustainability. 2022; 14(12):7181. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127181

Chicago/Turabian Style

Krug, Michael, Maria Rosaria Di Nucci, Matteo Caldera, and Elena De Luca. 2022. "Mainstreaming Community Energy: Is the Renewable Energy Directive a Driver for Renewable Energy Communities in Germany and Italy?" Sustainability 14, no. 12: 7181. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127181

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