# Advanced System Determined for Utilisation of Sustainable Biofuels in High-Performance Sport Applications

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

^{3}).

_{2,3}. The pressure rises, at nearly constant volume, from value p

_{2}to p

_{3}. Input heat is calculated by equation:

_{2,3}is heat brought between points 2 and 3 in p–V diagram (J), m is the working charge weight (kg), and c

_{v}is the specific heat capacity at constant volume (J·kg

^{−1}·K

^{−1}).

_{1}.

_{3}/T

_{2}).

_{1}and L

_{2}. The equation that describes the relation between length, L, and crankshaft angel rotation with radius, a, is:

_{c}is the relation between crankshaft radius and connecting rod length (a/L

_{k}).

_{4}belongs to θ

_{4}, which is possible to calculate by Equation (18):

## 2. Fuel Mixture and Exhaust Gases Exchange Described by Computation

_{4}= 91.6°. The listed distance or angular rotation of the crankshaft stated the initialization conditions which represent a zero starting time of τ = 0 s. By rotating the crankshaft and increasing the angle, the piston moved to the BDC which led to the exhaust channels closing. At a crankshaft angle of θ = 268.4° the exhaust channels were closed [18,19,20].

_{0}is the piston position at the start of the simulation (mm).

^{6}elements and 1.27 × 10

^{6}nodal points. Because the cylinder was the most important part of the simulation, a substantial number of elements were used to create the network.

## 3. Determining Unicity Conditions Used in Simulation Solution

_{p}, specifies piston velocity at any time, τ, which was set to value of 30.92 m·s

^{−1}at τ = 0, and was calculated on the basis of Equations (23) and (24):

^{−3}s of total time to solve the problem, which was subsequently divided into 2679 time steps, using four iterations per one time-step. The total number of iterations was 10,700. Shear stress transport (SST) was needed to model the turbulent flow of gas, which is also used in supersonic streaming with large pressure gradients, typical for exhaust processes.

## 4. Numerical Solutions Analysis

^{−4}shows a reduction of pressure at around 350 kPa. This pressure decrease is caused by gas leakage through the exhaust channel and the changed cylinder volume (increased). The temperature falls with pressure reduction, represented by the in-cylinder cross-section Figure 7 showing the temperature areas.

## 5. Conclusions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Puškár, M.
Advanced System Determined for Utilisation of Sustainable Biofuels in High-Performance Sport Applications. *Sustainability* **2022**, *14*, 6713.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116713

**AMA Style**

Puškár M.
Advanced System Determined for Utilisation of Sustainable Biofuels in High-Performance Sport Applications. *Sustainability*. 2022; 14(11):6713.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116713

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Puškár, Michal.
2022. "Advanced System Determined for Utilisation of Sustainable Biofuels in High-Performance Sport Applications" *Sustainability* 14, no. 11: 6713.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116713