Integrated Door-to-Door Transport Services for Air Passengers: From Intermodality to Multimodality
- Elaborate on the developments of integrated air travel through shifting from intermodality to multimodality;
- Consider the multimodal service within the European market;
- Identify major factors that stimulate multimodal transport demands;
- Emphasize and analyze the challenges and opportunities for development of multimodal service;
- Provide recommendations and research directions to move towards future air passenger multimodality.
2. Literature Review
3. Air Passenger Journey
4. Research Methodology
4.2. Existing Multimodal Service Analysis
4.3. Identification of Main Factors Influencing Future Multimodal Passenger Service
5. Prospective and Future Developments
5.1. Challenges for Policies
5.2. Recommendations for Policies
- Short-haul non-stop flights must be taken (flight duration should be approximately 1 h);
- The smooth movement of passengers and their luggage through the terminal must be ensured;
- An appropriate airport ground access system at origin and destination airports should be provided, along with high-quality infrastructure. Travel times will vary depending on the timetable (departure and arrival times), as well as the time of the day when the journey is taken (peak or off-peak);
- The location of origin and the final destination within the catchment area should be accessible within a determined time (no more than 45 min). Each airport has a catchment area, so the travel times to and from the airport will depend on the place where the journey begins and ends.
- Shorter transfer times can be applied to those connections with predominantly business passengers because they travel frequently, alone, with less luggage and know the process very well;
- Longer transfer times can be applied to those connections with leisure passengers because they carry more pieces of luggage, usually travel in a group and often search for additional information;
- In order to cope with demand variations, time should be divided according to the transport extent (e.g., according to the day—working day, weekend—or according to the time of day—peak, off-peak, morning, evening, etc.) and the process should be optimized according to each individually considered time period with different operational features.
- Use and analysis: Policies to enable public, private or other third parties to access shared data and to ensure the ethical use of data to protect public interests.
- Governance and accountability: Policies that establish roles and rights of parties over their data and shape the structure of the governing bodies.
- Data infrastructure: Policies related to the development of physical and digital infrastructure to allow management over data resources and flows of data.
- Data standards: Policies to support the development and adoption of data and metadata standards to ensure interoperability across multiple stakeholders.
- Data collection and merging: Policies to enable the collection of data generated from diverse sources and the assembly of data sources within a data sharing initiative.
- Suitable local accessibility to the site for all users (especially the disabled);
- Platforms for passengers to arrive or leave the terminal;
- Direct access between different platforms for all modes of the terminal (rental car facilities, offsite parking, public transport and airport);
- Adequate facilities facilitating transfers between modes;
- Reduced travel and waiting times compared to the time needed for the same journey without a transfer;
- A common area to wait for transfers, where passengers can do other activities;
- Timetables and information desks for the different modes located all over the terminal.
- Simplifying the ticketing system with a user-friendly interface and customized and transparent reporting, along with multiple ticketing choices and ways to buy tickets;
- Facilitating seamless connections at all stages of the journey (providing better interchange facilities) and providing interoperable systems among transport modes;
- Increasing the system resilience, which will be of particular importance in multimodal systems, which tend to be more sensitive than individual transport systems because they consist of more than one mode of transport.
- A single contract resulting from an agreement between two or several operators to offer a multimodal product, in which one of the operators acts as the single contracting party towards the passenger. In such case, provisions regarding liability sharing are included in the agreement between the operators involved, e.g., Maas;
- A single contract consisting of a product offered by an intermediate entity (such as an online seller or a tour operator, for instance), which includes transport services from all operators involved. The passenger enter a transport contract with the intermediate entity, e.g., charter airlines;
- A single multimodal transport operator that has a fleet of vehicles (e.g., aircraft, trains, buses) at its disposal, either through direct ownership or under lease, and that offers the multimodal service as a single entity and has its own insurance coverage arrangements, since it will be accepting liability for the entire transport process, e.g., cargo integrators.
5.3. Assessment of Expected Impacts
- Air passenger market segments must evolve due to the influence of digitalization and the increased use of new information technologies, along with changes in environmental and political awareness, which should be taken into account;
- The rules must be harmonized to cover the relationships between the operators of the different modes of transport involved, both nationally and internationally;
- New policy and legislative measures specific to multimodal journeys and related to data, revenue and responsibility sharing need to be adopted; special attention should be paid to the regulation of data sharing, since data sharing is the first step towards an integrated ticketing and payment system;
- New communication and information technologies should be employed in order to provide passengers and transport operators with real-time data;
- A remote luggage check-in system should be offered;
- Seamless connections should be facilitated at all stages of the journey (via better interchange facilities and timetable synchronization) to ensure the acceptance of public transport as a transport mode.
- A thorough impact assessment of the participants in future systems;
- Strategy and scenario planning and studies on data usage and passenger rights in a multimodal operation environment;
- Evaluations of the already established and conceptual systems;
- Examinations of the willingness of transport operators and passengers to use fully integrated multimodal air passenger transport systems through interviews or surveys.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Non- or Partially Coordinated—Intermodal Transport||Fully Coordinated—Multimodal Transport|
|Separate tickets||Single ticket|
|Timetables—non-synchronized arrival/departure times causing longer waiting times at transfer points||Timetables—synchronized arrival/departure times among transport operators, enabling shorter waiting times at transfer points|
|Longer walking distance between terminals during transfer due to current location of terminals and stops||Better location of terminals and stops—shorter walking distance between terminals during transfer|
|Multiple information sources||Single information platform|
|Responsibility of passenger or transport operator involved (each mode independently)||Responsibility of passenger or responsibility shared among transport operators involved|
|Luggage check-in at the airport||Possibility of remote luggage check-in|
|Access facilities (elevators, ramps, vertical and horizontal escalators, automated people movers)||Additional access facilities at transfer between terminals and stations for all modes of transport|
|Reference||Problem Considered||Case Study||Aspects of Multimodality|
|||Factors relevant to any competition assessment of air–rail intermodal agreements.||Europe||Considers only the link between air and rail, door-to-door is not considered.|
|||Travel trends among young adults: declining car travel demand and the understanding of ‘peak travel’.||Germany||Limited to city transport, without air transport|
|||The environmental impact of introducing a high-speed air–rail link.||Spain||Considers only the link between air and rail, door-to-door is not considered.|
|||How the change in urban mobility cultures affects the variability of mode choice (from urban monomodality to multimodality)||Germany||Limited to city transport, without air transport (multimodality—using different modes of transport without coordination)|
|||Ways to improve public transport services by using intermodal passenger transport.||Romania: Timisoara||Limited to city transport, without air transport|
|||Evaluation of Urban Public Transport intermodal hub quality through level of service—total transfer time.||Russia: Moscow||Limited to city transport, without air transport|
|||Relation between high level of multimodality and less car use||England||Considers only ground modes, multimodality—using different modes of transport without coordination|
|||Model for estimation of full door-to-door travel time between two cities using either the train or the plane.||Europe||Considers only total travel time in the current intermodal system|
|||Survey of real door-to-door travel times in long-distance traffic by air and rail||Germany||Considers only total travel time in the current intermodal system|
|||Provision of effective transport services for vulnerable populations and areas and identification of methods to overcome these challenges.||General||Limited to city transport, without air transport|
|||Intermodality is a key solution for sustainable cities in terms of societal changes and mobility trends.||Berlin, Paris, Copenhagen, Hamburg||Limited to city transport, without air transport|
|||Survey on multimodal choice behaviors of intercity travelers (airplane, High Speed Rail-HSR, traditional train, and express bus).||China: Xi’an||Multimodal choice, not multimodal trip|
|||Different approaches to information sharing, common situational awareness and real-time collaborative decision-making between airports and ground transport stakeholders.||Europe||Considers systems to help integration of different modes|
|||Factors which influence service quality of multimodal transportation of a hub with different types of public transport: metro, bus and rail.||Anand Vihar, Delhi||Limited to city transport, without air transport|
|||Walking time distributions for transfers from bus to rail platform are examined (based on smart card data and automatic vehicle location data).||Denmark||Considers only walking time between two modes, without air transport|
|||A bi-level model for a multimodal network design problem is developed.||General||Without air transport|
|||Air–rail integration: causal relationship between passengers’ psychological and behavioral variables; identification of different passenger groups for service improvement.||China: Shijiazhuang Zhengding International Airport||Considers only the link between air and rail, door-to-door is not considered.|
|||Designing a personalized multimodal travel service to recommend a route based on individual preferences, and to improve its performance.||China||Limited to city transport, without air transport|
|||A route choice model for a large-scale multimodal public transport network. Metro, urban rail, local trains, regional trains and busses are included.||Greater Copenhagen Region||Limited to city transport, without air transport|
|||Sustainable integrated transport and reduced bottlenecks in PT infrastructure, increasing the capacity of existing transport services.||Albania, Italy, Greece, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Slovenia||Without air transport|
|||Future urban air-taxi services—models and algorithms for pooling and scheduling and for routing and recharging; synchronization of different transport modes.||General||Limited to city transport|
|Deutsche Bahn-German Rail Company|
Lufthansa, American Airl. Emirates
|Austrian Federal Railway (ÖBB) |
|City Airport Train(CAT)|
Airlines-Austrian Lufthansa Eurowings Swiss Brussels Airl.
|Fly Rail Baggage|
|Swiss Railway Zurich airport|
|Train + Air ||French National Railway (SNCF)|
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Babić, D.; Kalić, M.; Janić, M.; Dožić, S.; Kukić, K. Integrated Door-to-Door Transport Services for Air Passengers: From Intermodality to Multimodality. Sustainability 2022, 14, 6503. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116503
Babić D, Kalić M, Janić M, Dožić S, Kukić K. Integrated Door-to-Door Transport Services for Air Passengers: From Intermodality to Multimodality. Sustainability. 2022; 14(11):6503. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116503Chicago/Turabian Style
Babić, Danica, Milica Kalić, Milan Janić, Slavica Dožić, and Katarina Kukić. 2022. "Integrated Door-to-Door Transport Services for Air Passengers: From Intermodality to Multimodality" Sustainability 14, no. 11: 6503. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116503