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Urban Strategies Enabling Industrial and Urban Symbiosis: The Case of Slovenia

1
Faculty of Architecture, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Urban Planning Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Rita Gamberini and Maria Angela Butturi
Sustainability 2021, 13(9), 4616; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094616
Received: 16 March 2021 / Revised: 9 April 2021 / Accepted: 14 April 2021 / Published: 21 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Energy Symbiosis)
Industrial symbiosis (IS) recognizes the exchange of waste resources and by-products between companies that do not normally cooperate in resource exchange; on the other hand, urban symbiosis (UrS) recognizes the use of solid waste in cities as input sources for industries that do not normally accept these sources. It is difficult to realize both in a pre-planned process, and there are few successful initiatives based on the exchange of waste and energy. The main objective of this research is to find out whether there are urban strategies that support the emergence, existence and development of IS and/or UrS in Slovenia. National documents, networks, projects, programs, and national statistical sources were examined. The Integrated Sustainable Urban Development Strategies (ISUSD) for eleven cities and municipalities were reviewed against ten selected indicators. The main findings are that there is intense awareness raising on IS and UrS, and adequate overall legislative support, aligned with EU legislation. Nevertheless, there has been surprisingly less waste conversion to energy recovery since 2010. The reuse of by-products either for energy or new products is non-existent or negligible. Selected main urban strategies for cities in Slovenia are far from setting more concrete guidelines for the development of IS and/or UrS. In the future, more successful integration of IS and UrS is possible in the context of regeneration development of brownfield sites. View Full-Text
Keywords: industrial symbiosis; urban symbiosis; circular economy; waste management; waste to energy; Slovenia industrial symbiosis; urban symbiosis; circular economy; waste management; waste to energy; Slovenia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ažman Momirski, L.; Mušič, B.; Cotič, B. Urban Strategies Enabling Industrial and Urban Symbiosis: The Case of Slovenia. Sustainability 2021, 13, 4616. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094616

AMA Style

Ažman Momirski L, Mušič B, Cotič B. Urban Strategies Enabling Industrial and Urban Symbiosis: The Case of Slovenia. Sustainability. 2021; 13(9):4616. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094616

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ažman Momirski, Lucija, Barbara Mušič, and Boštjan Cotič. 2021. "Urban Strategies Enabling Industrial and Urban Symbiosis: The Case of Slovenia" Sustainability 13, no. 9: 4616. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094616

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