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Self-Efficacy, Positive Future Outlook and School Burnout in Spanish Adolescents

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Almería, 04120 Almería, Spain
Department of Psychology, Autonomous University of Chile, Providencia 7500000, Chile
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francisco Manuel Morales Rodríguez
Sustainability 2021, 13(8), 4575;
Received: 4 March 2021 / Revised: 3 April 2021 / Accepted: 16 April 2021 / Published: 20 April 2021
Background: Environmental and personal circumstances during adolescence cause changes affecting students, their wellbeing, performance, self-efficacy, motivation, and aspirations for the future. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between burnout, self-efficacy, and outlooks by student gender and age, and determine the influence of self-efficacy on burnout and outlooks for the future. Methods: The sample was made up of 1287 high school students. The instruments used to collect data were The Control—Individual Protective Factors Index to evaluate self-efficacy, the Positive Outlook—Individual Protective Factors Index for aspirations, and finally, for burnout, the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results: The results showed that the cynicism and exhaustion dimensions of burnout correlated negatively with self-efficacy and outlooks. On the contrary, the academic efficacy dimension showed a positive correlation with self-efficacy. In addition, the gender and age variables were related to burnout. Student self-efficacy was related to burnout and outlooks for the future, where youths with the highest levels of self-efficacy were those who had the most positive outlooks for the future and the least school burnout. Conclusions: Given the academic changes that impede commitment, self-efficacy, and outlooks for the future of youths, the design of intervention programs directed at improving adolescent self-efficacy would lower burnout levels and raise their outlooks. View Full-Text
Keywords: school burnout; self-efficacy; outlooks for future; adolescents school burnout; self-efficacy; outlooks for future; adolescents
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martos Martínez, Á.; Molero Jurado, M.d.M.; Pérez-Fuentes, M.d.C.; Barragán Martín, A.B.; Simón Márquez, M.d.M.; Tortosa Martínez, B.M.; Sisto, M.; Gázquez Linares, J.J. Self-Efficacy, Positive Future Outlook and School Burnout in Spanish Adolescents. Sustainability 2021, 13, 4575.

AMA Style

Martos Martínez Á, Molero Jurado MdM, Pérez-Fuentes MdC, Barragán Martín AB, Simón Márquez MdM, Tortosa Martínez BM, Sisto M, Gázquez Linares JJ. Self-Efficacy, Positive Future Outlook and School Burnout in Spanish Adolescents. Sustainability. 2021; 13(8):4575.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martos Martínez, África, María d.M. Molero Jurado, María d.C. Pérez-Fuentes, Ana B. Barragán Martín, María d.M. Simón Márquez, Begoña M. Tortosa Martínez, Maria Sisto, and José J. Gázquez Linares. 2021. "Self-Efficacy, Positive Future Outlook and School Burnout in Spanish Adolescents" Sustainability 13, no. 8: 4575.

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