Reshaping the Role of Destination Management Organizations: Heritage Promotion through Virtual Enterprises—Case Study: Bresciatourism
2. Literature Review
2.1. Cooperation in Tourism
2.2. Virtual Enterprise in a Turbulent Environment
- Establishment: This stage defines and configures the relationship between partners, establishing an initial discussion on the resources and business process interfaces that each participant can devote and the conditions for it (such as security, reliability, authentication, payment and fault tolerance).
- Provision: This represents the operability of the VE.
- Termination: The access rights, interfaces, and implementations of the provided business processes and services can be modified by the VE partners.
- resources (to run strategies and activities);
- overlapping activities of the autonomous parties.
4. Case History
- fill the information/communication gap by providing key content in different languages;
- provide better info-promotional content and promote interchanges between local tourism operators;
- attract prospective travelers interested in visiting the province;
- improve awareness of local attractions abroad;
- educate tourists about the rich heritage of the Brescia province;
- support the tourism experience;
- enhance cooperation and communication between local areas of the province;
- increase the touristic and digital skills of the local tourist operators.
4.1. Content and Templates
- art and culture, UNESCO;
- food and wine, itineraries, main events;
- environment, protected areas, natural parks, mountains, lakes;
- wellness and health;
- intangible heritage and historical villages;
- religious tourism, itineraries and pilgrimage;
- lifestyle and luxury.
- Follow-up link: In order to enhance content dissemination, each post must contain a direct link to the DMO’s website and/or the partner’s website.
- Hashtags: Hashtags are allowed and recommended. The main one is the official one for Bresciatourism (#visitbrescia), and partners could add their own. A list of suggested hashtags was defined and shared.
- To create the best post to be viewed by potential tourists, each partner was requested to add copyright-free photos or videos about the destination or the event being promoted.
4.3. Localizing Content in Different Languages
- The time needed to run a project such as this is huge, but it is reduced when sharing with partners, delegating all of the organizing activities to a head (the DMO), and focusing on the activities each one is in charge of, following the agenda and the due date.
- Resources (to run strategies and activities) are well-defined at the beginning of the project: the DMO is in charge of several activities, while each partner only needs to generate posts and send visual material about their local heritage.
- Overlapping activities of the autonomous parties are quite limited due to the given content, templates and timing.
- agree to devote a defined share of their resources (financial, materials, information, human resources and time) in exchange for mutual improvement and in pursuit of the VEt’s goals.
- plan and develop the project under the coordination of the DMO in such a way that it will be optimally run. Timing is fundamental to plan the temporary cooperation and to achieve the best results from it.
- The DMO should head the VEt and partners should trust and recognize the DMO as crucial.
- Time has a strongly negative association with the VEt: The VEt usually requires a short-term commitment to accomplish the temporary cooperation; moreover, it emerges indirectly through dynamic capabilities and mid-process checks.
- Information and communication technologies support optimum VEt operability, enabling the benefits of the relationship at lower costs. Both the VEt structural system and its operation benefit from strong dependence on ICTs.
- The heritage of the whole destination is promoted through the VEt.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Camarinha-Matos et al. ||- Business opportunity||- Temporary alliance||- Shared skills||- Shared resources||- Supported by several tools (e.g., computer networks, IT)|
|Davidow and Malone ||- A common aim||- Minimizing costs||- Maximizing efficiency||- Realizing an aggregate value chain|
|Childe ||- Purchasing company||- Several suppliers||- Common aim||- Shared returns|
|Browne and Zhang ||- Specific aim||- Specific markets||- Shared resources||- Shared costs|
|Ouzounis and Tshammer ||- Different business domains collected||- Shared business processes|
|Goel et al. ||- Business opportunity||- Temporary alliance||- A common goal||- A common manifesto||- Partners completely free to join or drop out at any time|
|Rabelo et al. ||- Dynamic and temporary aggregation||- Logical aggregation||- Partners are autonomous||- Partners are heterogeneous||- Partners are geographically dispersed|
|Purpose||Organizational Structure||Costs and|
|Exploit a specific business opportunity||Controlled by common goal and manifesto||Low cost, labour-related.||Mainly indirect||Ad hoc, temporary||Necessary to make it effective||Partners join or drop any time; may be involved in multiple VEs||Very high||Very high||Low|
|Seamlessly integrate external entities/partners||Controlled by a main enterprise, who extend its boundaries vertically in the value chain||Moderate to low cost, labour-related. Mainly indirect||Long-term and Stable||Not directly connected||Participants may join exclusively||Low||Moderate||Moderate|
|Increase competitiveness||Differs depending on cases||Direct and indirect (HR, knowledge, infrastructures, etc.)||Long-term and stable||Not directly connected||Participants may join the network exclusively||Low||Moderate||High, competencies|
|Average Days Stayed||3.83||3.73||3.73||3.72||3.72|
|Main Subareas||Partners Involved|
|Brescia city and Hinterland||Assessorato al Turismo del Comune di Brescia|
Fondazione Brescia Musei
Strada del Vino Colli dei Longobardi
|Garda Lake||Consorzio lago di Garda Lombardia|
Strada dei Vini e dei Sapori del Garda
|Iseo Lake||Visit Lake Iseo|
Strada del Franciacorta
|Idro Lake and the Sabbia Valley||AGT Valle Sabbia e Lago d’Idro|
|Camonica Valley||DMO Valle Camonica|
|Trompia Valley||Comunità Montana di Valle Trompia|
|Lowlands of Brescia||Fondazione Pianura Bresciana|
Fondazione Castello di Padernello
|ITA||Prenotate uno spettacolo di opera, danza o musica al Teatro Grande, uno dei più bei teatri classici italiani. Godetevi un caffè tra gli affreschi veneziani dello sfavillante foyer. Brescia, che sorpresa!||Bit.ly/TeatroGrande|
|DE||Buchen Sie eine Opern-, Tanzoder Musikaufführung im Teatro Grande, einem der schönsten klassizistischen Theater Italiens. Genießen Sie einen Kaffee unter den venezianischen Fresken des glänzenden Foyers. Brescia, was für eine Überraschung!||Bit.ly/TeatroGrandeDN|
|EN||Book a ticket to the opera, a dance or a music show at Teatro Grande, one of the most beautiful classical Italian theatres. Enjoy a coffee amidst the wonderful Venetian frescos in the sparkling foyer. Brescia, never fail to surprise me!||Bit.ly/TeatroGrandeEN|
|FR||Réservez un spectacle d’opéra, de danse ou un concert au Teatro Grande, un des plus beaux théâtres anciens d’Italie. Dégustez un bon café dans le splendide foyer, décoré de fresques vénitiennes. Brescia, quelle surprise!||Bit.ly/TeatroGrandeFR|
|NL||Boek een heerlijk avondje opera, dans of muziek in het Teatro Grande, een van de mooiste klassieke theaters van Italië. Geniet van een heerlijke espresso onder de Venetiaanse fresco’s in de indrukwekkende foyer. Brescia, wat een verrassing!||Bit.ly/TeatroGrandeNL|
|#||++||- -||# Variation||% Variation|
|User Language||2018||2019||2020 (January–February)|
|Creation||Common aim identification (purpose)|
|Operation||Collaborative VE planning (timing, milestones, etc.)|
Operation of the virtual enterprise
Mid-process adaptation of collaborative VE planning
|Termination and Dissolution||Achievement of the common aim|
Dissolution of the VE or further evolution in a new VE/in cooperation
|Virtual Enterprise Life Cycle Stages||Bresciatourism VE: Localization Strategy to|
Promote the Destination through Social Media
|Creation||1. Common aim identification (purpose)||1. Development of a localization social media strategy for the comprehensive and effective promotion of the overall destination.|
|2. Partner selection||2. Partner selection adopts two criteria: inclusion of every area; relevance in terms of tourism attraction ability.|
|3. Resource attribution||3. Partner decided to devote a chosen slack each, to make the project effective.|
|Operation||4. Collaborative VE planning||4. Detailed VE planning was released|
|5. Operation of the virtual enterprise||5. The VE operation activities started 1 March 2018, with the first post released.|
|(Evolution)||6. Mid-process check||6. A mid-process check was planned at the halfway point of the project.|
|7. Mid-process adaptation of the collaborative VE planning||7. For the specific project, no mid-process adaptation was required.|
|Dissolution||8. Achievement of the common aim||8. The project was intended to close on 31 December 2018, with the last localized post released.|
|9. Dissolution of the VE or further evolution in a new VE||9. In a follow-up period, partners agree to dismantle the VEt for the achievement of the aim.|
|Purpose||Achieve a particular aim (business opportunity) in sustaining the whole destination’s heritage promotion.|
|Coordination and Trust||The DMO plays a pivotal role in generating both the system of partners and the common rules, coordinating resources, activities and efforts and measuring results.|
Heading the system, the DMO should generate trust among participants.
|Partner selection||Should be representative of the whole destination for comprehensive development.|
|Participation||Participants are entities dynamically involved in more than one VE at the same time but with no overlapping aims (nonexclusive basis).|
|Partner Dependency||Low, but mainly because coordination intends to avoid overlapping for the activities run by the VE.|
|Organizational structure||Controlled by a common goal and manifesto, requires a formal business plan.|
Activities should be planned, and timing should be defined.
The DMO can serve as facilitators and coordinators of partners’ actions.
|Lifetime||Ad hoc and temporary, depends on the VE’s purpose (or intention).|
|Costs and Resources involved||Low cost, mainly indirect and labour-related.|
|Technology||Conditio sine qua non to make it effective:|
|Reconfigurability||Very high, mid-process adjustments.|
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Garbelli, M.; Gabriele, M. Reshaping the Role of Destination Management Organizations: Heritage Promotion through Virtual Enterprises—Case Study: Bresciatourism. Sustainability 2021, 13, 4471. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084471
Garbelli M, Gabriele M. Reshaping the Role of Destination Management Organizations: Heritage Promotion through Virtual Enterprises—Case Study: Bresciatourism. Sustainability. 2021; 13(8):4471. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084471Chicago/Turabian Style
Garbelli, Maria, and Manuel Gabriele. 2021. "Reshaping the Role of Destination Management Organizations: Heritage Promotion through Virtual Enterprises—Case Study: Bresciatourism" Sustainability 13, no. 8: 4471. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084471