2. Materials and Methods
3.1. An Illustrative and Influential Legal Narrative
- “… there was nothing… which made it [the lake] any more dangerous than any other stretch of open water in England” (para. 20);
- “what amounts to “such care as in all the circumstances of the case is reasonable” depends upon assessing … not only the likelihood that someone may be injured and the seriousness of the injury which may occur, but also the social value of the activity … These factors have to be balanced against each other” (para. 34);
- “It is of course understandable that organizations like the Royal Society for Prevention of Accidents should favour policies which require people to be prevented from taking risks. … But they do not have to consider the cost, not only in money but also in deprivation of liberty, which such restrictions entail.” (para. 47);
- “In truth, the arguments for the claimant have involved an attack upon the liberties of the citizen which should not be countenanced. They attack the liberty of the individual to engage in dangerous, but otherwise harmless, pastimes at his own risk and the liberty of citizens as a whole fully to enjoy the variety and quality of the landscape of this country.” (para. 81);
3.2. Countryside Access and Recreation
3.3. The Management of Trees
3.4. Children’s Play
4.1. Roots of Discord
“In the event, the pattern of activity found in Systems Engineering—namely, precisely define a need and then engineer a system to meet that need using various techniques—was simply not rich enough to deal with the buzzing complexity and confusion of management situations.”
“It is beyond doubt that evidence must be framed by human speculations, classifications, drives and instincts, social environment and history, and our personal preferences or values.”
4.2. In Search of Remedies
“The principles of safety management are applicable both to workplaces in general as well as to play provision. However, the balance between safety and benefits is likely to be different in the two circumstances. In play provision exposure to some degree of risk may be of benefit because it satisfies a basic human need and gives children the chance to learn about risk and consequences in a controlled environment”
4.3. Antonovsky’s Prescience
Conflicts of Interest
- Visitor Safety Group. Managing Visitor Safety in the Countryside—Principles and Practice, 3rd ed.; York Publishing Services: York, UK, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Green, J. Risk and Misfortune: A Social Construction of Accidents; UCL Press: London, UK, 2003. [Google Scholar]
- Baker, S.P.; O’Neill, B.; Ginsburg, M.J.; Guahua, L. The Injury Fact Book, 2nd ed.; OUP: Oxford, UK, 1992. [Google Scholar]
- World Health Organization. Preventing Injuries and Violence: A Guide for Ministries of Health; WHO: Geneva, Switzerland, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Risk and Regulation Advisory Council. Response with Responsibility—Policy Making for Public Risk in the 21st Century; Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform: London, UK, 2009. Available online: https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20100104183913/http://www.berr.gov.uk/deliverypartners/list/rrac/index.html (accessed on 12 March 2021).
- International Organization on Standardization. Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems: ISO 45001; ISO: Geneva, Switzerland, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Ball, D.J.; Ball-King, L.N. Public Safety and Risk Assessment—Improving Decision Making; Earthscan: London, UK, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Lindström, B.; Eriksson, M. Salutogenesis. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 2005, 59, 440–442. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Von Lindern, E.; Lymeus, F.; Hartig, T. The Restorative Environment: A Complementary Concept for Salutogenic Studies. In The Handbook of Salutogenesis; Mittelmark, M.B., Sagy, S., Erikkson, M., Bauer, G.F., Pelikan, J.M., Lindström, B., Espnes, G.A., Eds.; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2017; pp. 181–195. [Google Scholar]
- Van den Bosch, M.; Bird, W. Nature and Public Health: The Role of Nature in Improving the Health of a Population; OUP: Oxford, UK, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Frumkin, H.; Bratman, G.N.; Breslow, S.J.; Cochran, B.; Kahn, P.H., Jr.; Lawler, J.J.; Levin, P.S.; Tandon, P.S.; Varanasi, U.; Wolf, K.L.; et al. Nature Contact and Human Health: A Research Agenda. Environ. Health Perspect. 2017, 125, 075001. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Brussoni, M.; Gibbons, R.; Gray, C.; Ishikawa, T.; Sandseter, E.B.H.; Bienenstock, A.; Chabot, G.; Fuselli, P.; Herrington, S.; Janssen, I.; et al. What is the Relationship between Risky Outdoor Play and Health in Children? A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 6423–6454. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Antonovsky, A. Health, Stress and Coping; Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, CA, USA, 1979. [Google Scholar]
- Cartwright-Hatton, S.; Dodd, H.; Lester, K.; Banerjee, R.; Gibson, J.; Hurding, R.; Lacey, A.; Loades, M.; Murray, J.; Pike, A.; et al. Play First: Supporting Children’s Social and Emotional Wellbeing During and After Lockdown. 2020. Available online: https://www.playscotland.org/resources/play-first-supporting-childrens-social-and-emotional-wellbeing-during-and-after-lockdown/ (accessed on 12 March 2021).
- Play Safety Forum. COVID-19 and Children’s Play; PSF: London, UK, 2020; Available online: https://playsafetyforum.wordpress.com/covid-19-and-childrens-play/ (accessed on 12 March 2021).
- Moore, S.A.; Faulkner, G.; Rhodes, R.E.; Brussoni, M.; Chulak-Bozzer, T.; Ferguson, L.J.; Mitra, R.; O’Reilly, N.; Spence, J.C.; Vanderloo, L.M.; et al. Impact of the COVID-19 Virus Outbreak on Movement and Play Behaviours of Canadian Children and Youth: A National Survey. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 2020, 17, 85. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Majchrzak, A.; Markus, M.L. Methods for Policy Research: Taking Socially Responsible Action, 2nd ed.; Sage: London, UK, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Checkland, P.; Poulter, J. Learning for Action: A Short Definitive Account of Soft Systems Methodology and Its Use for Practitioners, Teachers and Students; Wiley: Chichester, UK, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Ball-King, L.N. Risk Management and Proportionality: A Synoptic View of UK Practices. Ph.D. Thesis, King’s College, London, UK, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Ball-King, L.N. Risk-based Regulation in the UK: Courtroom Battles Expose Ongoing Problems. Eur. J. Risk Regul. 2020, 1–14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Collins, H.; Evans, R. Rethinking Expertise; University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL, USA, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Rogers, M. Contextualizing Theories and Practices of Bricolage Research. Qual. Rep. 2012, 17, 7. [Google Scholar]
- Packer, M. The Science of Qualitative Research; CUP: Cambridge, UK, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Braun, V.; Clarke, V. Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology. Qual. Res. Psychol. 2006, 3, 77–101. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- House of Lords. Tomlinson v Congleton Borough Council and Others; Parliament: London, UK, 2003; Available online: https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200203/ldjudgmt/jd030731/tomlin-1.htm (accessed on 12 March 2021).
- The National Archives. Health and Safety at Work etc Act; The National Archives: London, UK, 1974. Available online: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1974/37/contents (accessed on 12 March 2021).
- Louv, R. Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children from Nature-Deficit Disorder; Atlantic Books: London, UK, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Natural England. A Review of Nature-Based Interventions for Mental Health Care; Natural England: London, UK, 2016; Available online: http://publications.naturalengland.org.uk/publication/4513819616346112 (accessed on 12 March 2021).
- Ball, D.J.; Maggs, D.; Barrett, M. Judges, Courts, the Legal Profession and Public Risk; Risk and Regulation Advisory Council: London, UK, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Ball, D.J.; Watt, J. The risk to the public of tree fall. J. Risk Res. 2013, 16, 261–269. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nowak, D.J. Quantifying and Valuing the role of Trees and forests on Environmental Quality and Human Health. In Nature and Public Health: The Role of Nature in Improving the Health of a Population; van den Bosch, M., Bird, W., Eds.; OUP: Oxford, UK, 2018; pp. 312–316. [Google Scholar]
- DEFRA. Enabling a Natural Capital Approach: Guidance; DEFRA: London, UK, 2020. Available online: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/869801/natural-capital-enca-guidance_2_March.pdf (accessed on 12 March 2021).
- National Tree Safety Group. Common Sense Risk Management of Trees; Forestry Commission: London, UK, 2011. Available online: https://www.forestresearch.gov.uk/documents/7075/FCMS024.pdf (accessed on 12 March 2021).
- British Standards Institution. Risk Management—Risk Assessment Techniques; BS EN 31010:2010; BSI: London, UK, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Treework Environmental Practice. Tree-Lined Routes and the Linear Forest: A New Vision of Connected Landscapes; TEP Seminar 20 at Kew: London, UK, 2015; Available online: http://treeworks-seminars.co.uk/resources/2015/12/27/tree-lined-routes-the-linear-forest (accessed on 12 March 2021).
- United Nations. Convention on the Rights of the Child to Rest, Leisure, Play, Recreational Activities, Cultural Life and the Arts: General Comment No. 17; Article 31 para. 14c; UNCRC: New York, NY, USA, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Kennair, L.E.O.; Sandseter, E.B.H.; Ball, D.J. Risky Play and Growing Up: How to Understand the Overprotection of the Next Generation. In Pseudoscience: The Conspiracy Against Science; Kaufman, A.B., Kaufman, J.C., Eds.; The MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2018; pp. 171–194. [Google Scholar]
- Brussoni, M.; Olsen, L.L.; Pike, I.; Sleet, D.A. Risky Play and Children’s Safety: Balancing Priorities for Optimal Child Development. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 3134–3148. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Spiegal, B.; Gill, T.R.; Harbottle, H.; Ball, D.J. Children’s Play Space and Safety Management: Rethinking the Role of Play Equipment Standards; Sage Open: Newbury Park, CA, USA, 2014; pp. 1–11. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ball, D.J.; Gill, T.; Spiegal, B. Managing Risk in Play Provision: Implementation Guide, 2nd ed.; National Children’s Bureau: London, UK, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Shackell, A.; Butler, N.; Doyle, P.; Ball, D.J. Design for Play: A Guide to Creating Successful Play Spaces; National Children’s Bureau: London, UK, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- Renn, O. Concepts of Risk: A Classification. In Social Theories of Risk; Krimsky, S., Golding, D., Eds.; Praeger: Westport, CT, USA, 1992; pp. 53–79. [Google Scholar]
- Weigal, A.L. An Overview of the Systems Engineering Knowledge Domain; MIT: Boston, MA, USA, 2010; Available online: http://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/4081955/an-overview-of-the-systems-engineering-knowledge-domain-mit (accessed on 12 March 2021).
- White, D. Application of Systems thinking to Risk Management: A Review of the Literature. Manag. Decis. 1995, 33, 35–45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Seedhouse, D.F. The Case for Democracy in the COVID-19 Pandemic; Sage: London, UK, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Graham, J.D.; Wiener, J.B. Risk versus Risk: Tradeoffs in Protecting Health and the Environment; Harvard University Press: London, UK, 1995. [Google Scholar]
- Power, M. The Risk Management of Everything; DEMOS: London, UK, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- British Standards Institution. Playground Equipment and Surfacing: General Safety Requirements and Test Methods; BSEN1176-1:2008; BSI: London, UK, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- International Organization on Standardization. Risk Management Guidelines—ISO 31000; ISO: Geneva, Switzerland, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Yoon, K.P.; Hwang, C.L. Multiple Attribute Decision Making; Sage: London, UK, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- Ball-King, L.N. Benefit-Risk Assessment in Sport, Recreation and Public Life. Available online: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1vxGYfSdCQO7QPrTUOSNIopMQOn1oJ2q-/view (accessed on 12 March 2021).
- Play Safety Forum. Risk-Benefit Assessment Form; Play England, Play Scotland, Play Wales and PlayBoard Northern Ireland: Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 2016; Available online: https://playsafetyforum.files.wordpress.com/2015/03/cover-rba-form.jpg (accessed on 12 March 2021).
- Gill, T.; Power, M.; Brussoni, M. Risk Benefit Assessment for Outdoor Play: A Canadian Toolkit; Child & Nature Alliance of Canada: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2019; Available online: https://indd.adobe.com/view/44ed054b-917b-4e02-a1e3-e6c4cbfe0360 (accessed on 12 March 2021).
- Atomium European Institute for Science, Media and Democracy. Improving Society’s Management of Risks: A Statement of Principles; Atomium: Brussels, Belgium, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Mittelmark, B.; Bauer, G.F. The Meanings of Salutogenesis. In The Handbook of Salutogenesis; Mittelmark, M.B., Sagy, S., Erikkson, M., Bauer, G.F., Pelikan, J.M., Lindström, B., Espnes, G.A., Eds.; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2017; pp. 7–13. [Google Scholar]
- Hollnagel, E. Safety-I and Safety-II: The Past and Future of Safety Management; Ashgate: Farnham, UK, 2014. [Google Scholar]
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).