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Effects of Climatic Conditions, Season and Environmental Factors on CO2 Concentrations in Naturally Ventilated Primary Schools in Chile

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Sustainable Building Design Lab, Department UEE, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Université de Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium
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Department of Architectural Design and Theory, Faculty of Architecture, Construction and Design, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Concepción 4051381, Chile
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Local Environment Management & Analysis (LEMA), Department UEE, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Université de Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium
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Department of Informatics, KULeuven Campus Brussels, Simulation and Modeling, Warmoesberg 26, 1000 Brussels, Belgium
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Faculty of Business Economics, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marc A. Rosen and Giouli Mihalakakou
Sustainability 2021, 13(8), 4139; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084139
Received: 5 February 2021 / Revised: 26 March 2021 / Accepted: 1 April 2021 / Published: 8 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
Between the ages of 6 and 18, children spend between 30 and 42 h a week at school, mostly indoors, where indoor environmental quality is usually deficient and does not favor learning. The difficulty of delivering indoor air quality (IAQ) in learning facilities is related to high occupancy rates and low interaction levels with windows. In non-industrialized countries, as in the cases presented, most classrooms have no mechanical ventilation, due to energy poverty and lack of normative requirements. This fact heavily impacts the indoor air quality and students’ learning outcomes. The aim of the paper is to identify the factors that determine acceptable CO2 concentrations. Therefore, it studies air quality in free-running and naturally ventilated primary schools in Chile, aiming to identify the impact of contextual, occupant, and building design factors, using CO2 concentration as a proxy for IAQ. The monitoring of CO2, temperature, and humidity revealed that indoor air CO2 concentration is above 1400 ppm most of the time, with peaks of 5000 ppm during the day, especially in winter. The statistical analysis indicates that CO2 is dependent on climate, seasonality, and indoor temperature, while it is independent of outside temperature in heated classrooms. The odds of having acceptable concentrations of CO2 are bigger when indoor temperatures are high, and there is a need to ventilate for cooling. View Full-Text
Keywords: educational building; free-running; carbon dioxide; indoor air temperature; interaction; occupant density; indoor environmental quality educational building; free-running; carbon dioxide; indoor air temperature; interaction; occupant density; indoor environmental quality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Diaz, M.; Cools, M.; Trebilcock, M.; Piderit-Moreno, B.; Attia, S. Effects of Climatic Conditions, Season and Environmental Factors on CO2 Concentrations in Naturally Ventilated Primary Schools in Chile. Sustainability 2021, 13, 4139. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084139

AMA Style

Diaz M, Cools M, Trebilcock M, Piderit-Moreno B, Attia S. Effects of Climatic Conditions, Season and Environmental Factors on CO2 Concentrations in Naturally Ventilated Primary Schools in Chile. Sustainability. 2021; 13(8):4139. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084139

Chicago/Turabian Style

Diaz, Muriel; Cools, Mario; Trebilcock, Maureen; Piderit-Moreno, Beatriz; Attia, Shady. 2021. "Effects of Climatic Conditions, Season and Environmental Factors on CO2 Concentrations in Naturally Ventilated Primary Schools in Chile" Sustainability 13, no. 8: 4139. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084139

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