Faces of Marginal Housing in Romania
- Are the marginalized housing areas in Romania objectively reflected by the media?
- What are the operating mechanisms of the marginalized areas that are most intensively debated by the media? Further, how do the communities evolve/manifest in relation to these mechanisms?
- To what extent do the implemented public policies at the national level meet the needs of the communities inhabiting the marginalized areas?
1.1. Marginal Urban Housing—A Particular Way of Life
1.2. From Marginalization to Urban Regeneration
1.3. Particularities of Marginalized Housing in Romania
- ghetto-type areas with poor quality blocks of flats or in former low-quality housing facilities for workers, built before 1990 especially to lodge workers employed in large socialist enterprises; many of them are co-owned by landlords and tenants;
- slum areas with unconventional/improvised houses and/or shelters, usually located in old peripheral neighborhoods with improvised houses/huts; sometimes, container houses are placed in their vicinity;
- upgraded social housing areas, established after the implementation of several integrated projects, with better infrastructure and subject to a higher risk of continuous segregation due to the modernization of infrastructure;
- historical (central) areas of the city, nationalized during the communist period, heavily degraded and used as social housing.
- In the case of Romania, informal housing is defined as a group of illegally built and precarious housing, created by voluntary or forced sedentarization of the Roma population [41,42]. The sedentarization of nomadic Roma during the socialist period on the outskirts of urban or rural settlements or in the former Saxon properties has evolved, in many cases, to establishing new Roma communities near to the first established settlements .
- Depending on the spatial extent and physiognomy of constructions, we currently find the following types of informal settlements in Romania: (a). groups of new buildings constructed without authorization, (b). improvised or illegally built dwellings, located in built-up areas, (c). groups of temporary and perennial buildings, (d). housing of the Roma communities [41,42].
2. Case Study Selection
- their location on the outskirts of cities and/or in buildings classified as historical monuments;
- they are a direct result of local relocation policies;
- they are communities with strong features of ethnic segregation;
- they are inhabited by Roma communities strongly popularized in the national and international press.
3. Methods Used
- Data collection involved, on the one hand, the identification of spatial location using ESRI Online resources, OpenStreetMap basemap and Google Street View images that render the physiognomy of the analyzed areas. On the other hand, we selected several public policy documents that regulate the phenomenon of segregation of Roma communities in Romania (laws, action guidelines) and also some local/national and international press articles published in the reference period 2010–2020, which outlined various aspects of the Roma communities under study. Often, the choice of media sources to render the factual reality as objectively as possible proved to be a difficult process as a number of factors intervened, many of them related to the politicization of media, state development level and the dependence of media on various decision makers . Attributes such as intelligibility, popularity, experience and media labelled “traditional” [44,45,46] were considered in selecting media sources that would provide valuable information for this study (Ziar de Cluj, Monitorul de Cluj, Romania Insider, Adevărul, Ziar MM, Turnul Sfatului, Tribuna, Ziua de Vest, Al Jazeera, France 24, The Guardian, BBC, The Sun, Daily Mail, Telegraph, etc.).
- Data processing consisted in mapping the study areas by using ArcGIS 10.7 software and the qualitative and quantitative content analysis of public policy documents and press articles.
4.1. Marginalized Housing Areas—An Effect of the Local Relocation Policies
- the decisive triggering factor for setting up new spatial locations for the communities is external, completely independent of the actual affected community;
- representatives of these communities had not been involved in any public consultation/debate before the actual relocation process was completed;
- lack in the provision of minimum housing services, which is opposite to the practices conducted in other cases of housing construction in urban neighborhoods;
- a persistent high degree of poverty in these informal settlements, even if specific measures to improve some aspects of the quality of life of the inhabitants were taken.
4.2. Faces of Marginalized Housing as Reflected by the Media
- an increased interest in the issue of informal housing in Cluj-Napoca (n = 68) and Baia Mare (n = 59), mainly due to the environmental conflicts found in these cases;
- the international news articles predominantly outline problems of the same communities analyzed by the national media, particularly those located in Cluj-Napoca (n = 25) and Baia Mare (n = 16);
- the abusive occupation of some buildings in the historical center of Timișoara by representatives of the Roma clans (n = 9) is a visible topic;
- the extravagant lifestyle associated with the Roma communities in Sibiu (n = 21) is highly debated, as well.
- media is highly interested in outlining initiatives and ways of allocating the necessary resources to improve living conditions (n = 31);
- funding was mostly used for housing purposes, namely the construction of modular houses, social housing or even the modernization of some apartment blocks already resided byRoma ethnics;
- elements of oral history, more precisely recordings of stories related to the daily life of Roma communities (n = 17), revealing particular features of traditional crafts and gastronomy and other customs. Xenophobia, discrimination and racism are also highlighted and debated.
- involvement of the Roma ethnics in cultural events (n = 13), mostly in Sibiu; for instance, their active participation in the Astra Multicultural event, the organization of international meetings of Roma poets and artists, the involvement in ”T-aves baxtalo!” event or book launches for Roma authors (Luminița Cioabă);
- presentation of life events, namely weddings and funerals, which follow certain traditional customs (n = 13), promoted especially by the international publications (4 News, Global News, Telegraph, Vice, Daily Mail, The Guardian).
- Pata Rât landfill, Cluj-Napoca, Romania—an ecological conflict generated by the relocation of 350 inhabitants from a residential area in Cluj-Napoca to a location near the city waste dump. This decision was made by the local authority and some 1500 people were affected. The intensity of conflict was average (street protests, guerrilla theater, activism, public campaigns). The generated impact was environmental (air pollution, soil contamination, waste discharge, unhealthy housing), socioeconomic (relocation, fires, unemployment) and health related (accidents).
- records of cases of theft and other crimes (violence, human trafficking, non-compliance with regulations in force) (n = 9) in which ethnics of specific clans (Timișoara) or members of the Roma colonies located on the outskirts of cities were involved;
- conflicts between the Roma and the Romanian communities (n = 10) recorded in Timișoara and Sibiu (Turnișor);
- records of tax fraud and abusive occupation of historical buildings (n = 5), a situation found in Timișoara (Cârpaci, Stancu clans).
- content is fairly presented in the media, with predominant tendencies of neutrality regarding the manner of presentation on behalf of authors;
- objectivity is generally maintained between content and its presentation, with some exceptions, usually associated with a tendency of negativism on behalf of author(s) when it comes to the involvement of Roma communities in cultural events;
- most of the positive news refers to the initiation or implementation of social inclusion projects (housing, education, employment);
- the negative features are mostly noted in the news on habitation, environmental racism, crime and ethnic discrimination.
- keep an updating record on the expansion or occurrence of new informal settlements, their number of inhabitants and the main housing features in these areas, based on data provided by the 2021 National Census of Population and Housing;
- set up local working groups to specifically focus on housing;
- create local housing policies;
- devise and implement development projects aimed at reducing or combating poverty and social exclusion, which is a priority of the European policy and Agenda 2030; a new EU financial mechanism will be available for the period 2021–2027 (European Union Territorial Cohesion Policy Objective—A more social Europe ).
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
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|Subcategories||Content of News (no.)||Perception of Author(s) (no.)|
|Local and national projects and initiatives related to housing||13||0||0||3||9||1|
|International projects related to housing||6||0||0||4||2||0|
|Sanitation and cleaning actions||5||0||1||4||1||1|
|Involvement in cultural events||12||0||0||0||6||6|
|Presentation of live events||0||11||1||0||11||1|
|Projects supportive of inclusive labor markets||11||0||1||6||5||1|
|Educational inclusion projects||12||0||0||4||7||1|
|Discrimination against the Roma amplified by actions of the local authorities||1||1||15||0||9||8|
|Cases of theft and other crimes||0||0||7||0||3||4|
|Conflicts between Roma and Romanian communities||0||1||8||0||8||1|
|Tax fraud and abusive occupation of historical buildings||0||0||3||0||0||3|
|Diversions in funding for social inclusion||0||0||7||0||1||6|
|1.||Law no. 151/2019 to update Law no. 350/2000 on spatial planning and urbanism ||2019||Law||national|
|2.||Action guidelines for communities living in informal settlements||2019||Guidelines||national|
|3.||Guidelines to prevent forced evictions and hold public authorities accountable for providing adequate housing to evicted dwellers ||2019||Guidelines||local|
|4.||Informal housing in Romania||2018||Study report||national|
|5.||Formalizing the Informal: Challenges and Opportunities of Informal Settlements in South-East Europe||2015||Study||international|
|6.||National Strategy on Social Inclusion and Poverty Reduction 2015–2020 ||2015||Public policy document||national|
|7.||Atlas of urban marginalized areas||2014||Study||national|
|8.||Law no. 292/2011 on social assistance ||2011||Law||national|
|9.||Law no. 116 of 15 March 2002 on preventing and combating social exclusion ||2002||Law||national|
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Hognogi, G.-G.; Pop, A.-M.; Marian-Potra, A.-C. Faces of Marginal Housing in Romania. Sustainability 2021, 13, 3983. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13073983
Hognogi G-G, Pop A-M, Marian-Potra A-C. Faces of Marginal Housing in Romania. Sustainability. 2021; 13(7):3983. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13073983Chicago/Turabian Style
Hognogi, Gheorghe-Gavrilă, Ana-Maria Pop, and Alexandra-Camelia Marian-Potra. 2021. "Faces of Marginal Housing in Romania" Sustainability 13, no. 7: 3983. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13073983