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Value Capture and Vertical Allocations of Public Amenities

Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel
Department of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Geodesy, Universität der Bundeswehr München, 85577 Neubiberg, Germany
School of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
Institute of Land Management and Geomatics, Vytautas Magnus University Agriculture Academy, LT-53361 Kaunas, Lithuania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miguel Amado
Sustainability 2021, 13(7), 3952;
Received: 9 March 2021 / Revised: 21 March 2021 / Accepted: 25 March 2021 / Published: 2 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Value Capture)
This paper describes and critically reviews an important but under-theorized value capture mechanism that we have termed “vertical allocations” (or vertical exactions). This mechanism enables cities to capture value vertically by allocating floor space for public utilities in privately owned, mixed-use, vertical development. As a value capture tool, vertical allocations allow the government to tap value uplift to supply the nearby neighborhood, and the city as a whole, with much needed public services. The owner or developer is required to make in-kind contributions in the form of spaces provided for a range of public facilities such as schools, preschools, community centers, and public medical clinics. While focusing on vertical exactions in Israel we explore how a certain share of land/floorspace can be allocated for public amenities in a given project. There are several legal pathways for securing public floorspace including negotiated agreements, land readjustment and expropriation. The findings show that unclear policies and regulations could create frictions between developers and municipalities, and these raise the nexus question as well as debates about construction costs and financial contributions developers have to make. Specifically, the paper finds that while developers often argue that cities should cover the costs of constructing public floorspace, city officials assert that the costs should be borne by the owners and developers. View Full-Text
Keywords: value capture; policy assessment; vertical development; public amenities; public-private cooperation value capture; policy assessment; vertical development; public amenities; public-private cooperation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mualam, N.; Hendricks, A.; Maliene, V.; Salinger, E. Value Capture and Vertical Allocations of Public Amenities. Sustainability 2021, 13, 3952.

AMA Style

Mualam N, Hendricks A, Maliene V, Salinger E. Value Capture and Vertical Allocations of Public Amenities. Sustainability. 2021; 13(7):3952.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mualam, Nir, Andreas Hendricks, Vida Maliene, and Eyal Salinger. 2021. "Value Capture and Vertical Allocations of Public Amenities" Sustainability 13, no. 7: 3952.

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