With the increasing level of air pollution and fine dust, many countries are trying to prevent further environmental damage, with various government legislations, such as the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement. In the transportation field, a variety of environmental protection schemes are also being considered (e.g., banning old diesel vehicles, alternate no-driving systems, electric car subsidies, and environmental cost charging by tax). Imposing environmental constraints is a good approach to reflect various environmental protections. The objective of this research was to analyze the mode-choice and route-choice changes based on imposing environmental constraints. For the objective, a combined modal split and traffic assignment (CMA) model with an environmental constraint model was developed. For the environmental constraint, carbon monoxide (CO) was adopted, because most of the CO emissions in the air are emitted by motorized vehicles. After a detailed description of the model, the validity and some properties of the model and algorithm are demonstrated with two numerical examples (e.g., a small and a real network in the city of Winnipeg, Canada). From the numerical results, we can observe that imposing the small restriction (or strict) value has more efficiency in mode change and reducing network emission.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited