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Article

Life Cycle and Economic Analyses of the Removal of Pesticides and Pharmaceuticals from Municipal Wastewater by Anodic Oxidation

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REQUIMTE/LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal
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Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
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Águas do Centro Litoral, SA, Grupo Águas de Portugal, ETA da Boavista, 3030-410 Coimbra, Portugal
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CINTECX, Grupo de Bioingeniería y Procesos Sostenibles, Departamento de Ingeniería Química Universidade de Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310 Vigo, Spain
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REQUIMTE/LAQV, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia (FCT), Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ariana Pintor
Sustainability 2021, 13(7), 3669; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13073669
Received: 6 February 2021 / Revised: 18 March 2021 / Accepted: 19 March 2021 / Published: 25 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring Innovative Solutions for Wastewater Treatment)
Several pesticides and pharmaceuticals (PP) have been detected in the effluent of a full-scale Portuguese Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). Their presence contributed to the environmental burdens associated with the existing treatment of the Municipal Wastewater (MWW) in the impact categories of Human Carcinogenicity, Non-Carcinogenicity, and Freshwater toxicities on average by 85%, 60%, and 90%, respectively (ReciPe2016 and USEtox methods). The environmental and economic assessment of the installation of an Anodic Oxidation (AO) unit for PPs’ removal was performed through Life Cycle and Economic Analysis, considering two types of anodes, the Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) and the Mixed Metal Oxides (MMO). The operation of the AO unit increased the environmental burdens of the system by 95% on average (USEtox), but these impacts can be partially compensated by the avoided the production of non-renewable energy in the Portuguese electricity mix by biogas cogeneration at the WWTP. If the construction of the AO unit and the manufacturing of the electrodes are considered, the Human and Freshwater Toxicities are often higher than the environmental benefits derived from the PPs’ removal. On the economic side, the MMO configuration is clearly more advantageous, whereas BDD is environmentally more favorable. The issue of the presence of PP in MWW effluents has to be addressed as an integrated solution both improving upstream PP’s management and adopting PP’s removal technologies strongly supported by renewable energies. Further insights are needed for the assessment of fate and of the environmental effects of PP in the sludge. View Full-Text
Keywords: pesticides; pharmaceutical compounds; municipal wastewater; anodic oxidation; life cycle assessment; economic analysis pesticides; pharmaceutical compounds; municipal wastewater; anodic oxidation; life cycle assessment; economic analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Surra, E.; Correia, M.; Figueiredo, S.; Silva, J.G.; Vieira, J.; Jorge, S.; Pazos, M.; Sanromán, M.Á.; Lapa, N.; Delerue-Matos, C. Life Cycle and Economic Analyses of the Removal of Pesticides and Pharmaceuticals from Municipal Wastewater by Anodic Oxidation. Sustainability 2021, 13, 3669. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13073669

AMA Style

Surra E, Correia M, Figueiredo S, Silva JG, Vieira J, Jorge S, Pazos M, Sanromán MÁ, Lapa N, Delerue-Matos C. Life Cycle and Economic Analyses of the Removal of Pesticides and Pharmaceuticals from Municipal Wastewater by Anodic Oxidation. Sustainability. 2021; 13(7):3669. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13073669

Chicago/Turabian Style

Surra, Elena, Manuela Correia, Sónia Figueiredo, Jaime G. Silva, Joana Vieira, Sandra Jorge, Marta Pazos, Maria Á. Sanromán, Nuno Lapa, and Cristina Delerue-Matos. 2021. "Life Cycle and Economic Analyses of the Removal of Pesticides and Pharmaceuticals from Municipal Wastewater by Anodic Oxidation" Sustainability 13, no. 7: 3669. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13073669

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