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Open AccessArticle

Theoretical Comparison of the Effects of Different Traffic Conditions on Urban Road Environmental External Costs

1
Department of Transport Technology and Economics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Hungary
2
KTI-Institute for Transport Sciences, 1119 Budapest, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luigi Dell’olio
Sustainability 2021, 13(6), 3541; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063541
Received: 7 January 2021 / Revised: 18 March 2021 / Accepted: 19 March 2021 / Published: 23 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Sustainable Transportation Models and Applications)
External costs that are associated with air pollution, climate change linked to greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), and noise are among the most important environmental externalities that are generated by road transport, which have been well monetized. This paper theoretically investigates the effects of different traffic conditions on the environmental external costs of urban roads where traffic flow is more complicated than un-interrupted traffic flows. A Monte Carlo method is used to theoretically simulate traffic speed in different traffic conditions. Subsequently, the emitted carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and noise were estimated in each of the theoretically simulated traffic conditions. Finally, the environmental external costs in each traffic condition were calculated taking the EU average costs values into account. The results showed that, when compared to free-flow condition, the total air pollutant and GHG external costs (€2010) have been increased by 6%, 31%, 44%, 50%, and 93% in under-saturated flow, accelerated flow, decelerated flow, congestion, and over-saturated congestion, respectively. Furthermore, the total noise cost (€2010/year/person exposed), as compared to free-flow condition, has been decreased by 2%, 11%, 12%, 36%, and 69% in accelerated flow, under-saturated flow, congestion, over-saturated congestion, and decelerated flow, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental external cost; traffic condition; urban road; road traffic air pollution; road traffic noise; environmental externalities environmental external cost; traffic condition; urban road; road traffic air pollution; road traffic noise; environmental externalities
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zefreh, M.M.; Torok, A. Theoretical Comparison of the Effects of Different Traffic Conditions on Urban Road Environmental External Costs. Sustainability 2021, 13, 3541. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063541

AMA Style

Zefreh MM, Torok A. Theoretical Comparison of the Effects of Different Traffic Conditions on Urban Road Environmental External Costs. Sustainability. 2021; 13(6):3541. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063541

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zefreh, Mohammad M.; Torok, Adam. 2021. "Theoretical Comparison of the Effects of Different Traffic Conditions on Urban Road Environmental External Costs" Sustainability 13, no. 6: 3541. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063541

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