Justice in (English) Water Infrastructure: A Systematic Review
- Prior to commencing the systematic literature review what is meant by ‘justice’ needs to be explored and clearly set out. This study therefore starts by defining what is meant by ‘justice’ and explores themes around the concept. From those themes a framework of justice is created.
- The study then sets out the methodology for the systematic literature review and provides an overview of the data collected;
- This is followed by a more detailed discussion and analysis of the findings. The justice framework and themes is used to inform the analysis. This section includes a discussion on the limitations of the research methods deployed; and
- The conclusion seeks to answer the research questions and suggest further areas of research.
2. Key Concept: Justice
- Distributive justice is credited to the work of Rawls and justice as fairness , and addresses how resources, benefits and detriments are allocated amongst us. It accepts that there will always be ‘winners and losers’, but justice provides a mechanism for that to be as equitable and fair as possible. Where there is a distribution that is unequal, for example, that inequality should be to the benefit of the most disadvantaged . It can be construed wider. A recent example is the ‘polluter pays’ principle, those who pollute being held responsible for the consequences.
- Procedural justice demands there should be access to justice and procedural fairness: it asks who participates, who decides and how a conflict is resolved, and is an important form of justice alongside distribution . There have been moves to embed principles of access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice, particularly in the environmental arena as enshrined in agreements such as the Aarhus Convention  and mandated in the EU Water Framework Directive .
- Recognition and respect define procedural justice further to ensure that all voices are heard and respected in that process. Without recognition and respect there is no true voice, and it cannot be shown that a distribution or process is fair. In the absence of recognition, the processes lead to maldistribution . This can be considered further when applying Arnstein’s ladder of citizen participation  on the even more complex question of whether a process gives a true voice; whether there is tokenism or true engagement and empowerment.
‘projects tend to run smoother where there is a background of undemocratic processes and low levels of activism’
- Capacities, or capabilities, is credited to separate works of Sen [36,37] and Nussbaum [38,39]. It encapsulates the three previous approaches but goes further in not simply seeking some form of fair dispute resolution. It has positive aims to improve the lives of living things. Its essence is that for justice, an individual must be enabled to have access to assets they need not just to survive, but to thrive. It can include the equitable distribution among us to achieve this, and how we participate and engage with due process and respect for those needs to be articulated and heard. It then goes further by addressing quality of life and well-being, by setting minimum standards that need to be achieved . (For an example of the application of capability justice in infrastructure in practice, see ).
3. Materials and Methods
- Water OR blue OR sew* (to allow for sewage, sewerage);
- Infrastructure OR intervention OR construction;
- UK OR “United Kingdom” OR Britain OR England.
- The above search terms were applied to an ‘abstract, title or subject’ search firstly to the Compendex database giving 365 returns.
- The results were filtered using controlled terms relating to infrastructure, governance and water. This gave 72 returns. A test of a selection of excluded documents was undertaken to ensure the filters applied did not exclude legitimate documents.
- The duplicate filter then removed 11 documents, leaving 61.
- The abstracts were previewed to check consistency with the aim and scope of the study. Documents rejected included additional duplicates not filtered out previously, and documents that did not relate to England or where water or sewerage was not the predominant issue. Documents were excluded which could not be located online.
- Documents were not excluded on language or document type, i.e., grey literature was included.
- In total 28 documents were taken forward for a full review.
- 28 peer reviewed journal articles
- 5 journal articles, not peer reviewed
- 1 chapter in a book
- 1 lecture (video)
- 1 thesis
- 1 from 1996
- 1 from 2005
- 7 between 2006 to 2010
- 11 from 2011 to 2015
- 16 from 2016 to 2020
- 4 Policy
- 10 Law and regulation (excluding economic regulation)
- 4 Economic regulation only
- 8 Sector Regime including networks
- 1 Norms, values and behaviours
- 9 Multiple forms of the above
- 9 Water Re-Use/Rain Water Harvesting and Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS)
- 2 hydropower schemes
- 2 sewerage and wastewater treatment
- 2 urban blue landscaping
- 5 freshwater pipe network including reservoirs and abstraction, metering and retrofitting
- 4 flooding interventions including Natural Flood Management
- 1 synthetic biology
5.1. Category A
“And humans do not hold all of the cards. In the end, the environment itself, impartially and inexorably, will continue to respond to human expressions of agency and power through water: if these are unsustainable they will, quite simply, cease to be sustained” (p. 318)
46. What would we do with sewage and water supply networks if we started afresh (and considered all factors such as changing climate, population and policy); is current technology up to the job?47. What would a modern water/wastewater treatment plant look like if we could start afresh?48. How do we develop and implement low energy water and wastewater treatment processes?50. Is local treatment more sustainable than a fully sewered system?53. What is the best solution to water supply over periods longer than the next 30 years, and what are the potential barriers to success? (citation)
78. How can ‘can’t pay’ water debtors be differentiated from ‘won’t pay’ debtors, and what pricing structures and measures are best able to deliver water justice and cost recovery?
- A clear articulation within the texts of what justice (or indeed equity, equality or rights) means in this sector.
- An articulation of the relationship between sustainability and justice.
5.2. Categories B and C
- Distributional issues specifically around the and ownership regime and its fitness for purpose;
- Capability Justice.
6.1. Issues Highlighted
6.2. Limitations and Further Research
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|A||Contains express reference to ‘justice’||3||Brown et al., 2010; Strang, 2016; Thaler and Priest, 2014. [44,45,46]|
|B||Is not included in A above, but does contain express references to ‘equity’, ‘equality’ and/or ‘rights’||8||Collins, 2012; Goytia et al., 2016; Guy and Marvin, 1996; Liang, Deller and Hviid, 2019; Molyneux-Hodgson and Balmer, 2014; Perrotti, Hyde and Otero Peña, 2020; Speight, 2015; Wells, 2019. [47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54]|
|C||Is not included in A or B above, but does contain references to justice themes||8||Broich, 2007; Frijns et al., 2016; Holt and Baker, 2014; Melville-Shreeve et al., 2018; Murrant et al., 2017; Piper, 2014; Roberts, 2007; Sharp, Macrorie and Turner, 2015. [55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62]|
|D||Is not included in A to C above, but does reference ‘sustainability’||13||Bar-Isaac and Walker, 2018; Brown, Ashley and Farrelly, 2011; Browne, Jack and Hitchings, 2019; Charlesworth, Warwick and Lashford, 2016; Goodwin et al., 2019; Gunasekara et al., 2018; Heptonstall, 2010; Rodda, 2009; Spiller et al., 2012; Ward et al., 2012; Ward and Butler, 2016; Way et al., 2010; Willis, Scarpa and Acutt, 2005. [63,64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74]|
|E||Is not included in A–D above||4||Bankoff, 2013; Millington, 2014; Tresidder and White, 2018; Williams, 2008. [75,76,77,78]|
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Shrimpton, E.A.; Hunt, D.; Rogers, C.D.F. Justice in (English) Water Infrastructure: A Systematic Review. Sustainability 2021, 13, 3363. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063363
Shrimpton EA, Hunt D, Rogers CDF. Justice in (English) Water Infrastructure: A Systematic Review. Sustainability. 2021; 13(6):3363. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063363Chicago/Turabian Style
Shrimpton, Elisabeth A., Dexter Hunt, and Chris D.F. Rogers. 2021. "Justice in (English) Water Infrastructure: A Systematic Review" Sustainability 13, no. 6: 3363. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063363