2.1. Security and Safety Are Described in Polish in One Word: “Bezpieczeństwo”
It should be emphasised that the term “security and safety” (bezpieczeństwo
) is a broad and multi-faceted concept, discussed in detail and defined many times by Polish scientists. The concept refers to individuals or social groups (micro- and macro-social categories), countries, regions, and the globe. Its understanding is considered as a state (giving a sense of confidence and guaranteeing its behaviour and a chance for improvement; it means no risk of losing something, e.g., health, material goods, respect, feelings) [10
] (p. 17) and process (a dynamic phenomenon to which a person is subjected) [11
]. The most common definition of security and safety is zero risk and protection against dangers [12
]. A similar but more detailed definition is presented by J. Kunikowski: security and safety is the lack of threats and the nation’s ability to protect its internal values against external threats, as well as a contemporary measure of existence, survival and development of the state, society and its citizens [13
]. W. Kitler points out that security has an interdisciplinary and utilitarian character; it cannot be considered as a value separate from other values [14
]. Another author, B. Balcerowicz, on the other hand, believes that the essence of security consists of two components: a guarantee of inviolable survival and a guarantee of development opportunities [15
Worth mentioning is the fact that in psychology, safety itself is defined as a basic human need, without which it is impossible to function and develop properly. According to A. Maslow, the author of the five-tier model of human needs, depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid, disturbing the sense of safety over physiological needs makes it difficult to meet higher needs, such as affiliation, respect, and self-fulfilment [16
The concept of security and safety is described in a multifaceted manner by S. Koziej: it is a process whose most characteristic dimensions are uniformisation (the consequence of the information revolution), asymmetry (caused mainly by a political revolution, such as the collapse of the bipolar world), networking (resulting from the information revolution and globalisation) and integration (from a purely specialised military dimension of security through the level of defence to modern, integrated national and international security) [11
Regarding security and safety taxonomy, in “Security: A New Framework for Analysis”, the authors list the following sectors: military/state, political, societal, economic and environmental [17
]. The authors of the Polish dictionary of the psychology of command and management have specified global, regional, and national security; military, political and social security; physical, mental and social security; structural and personal security [10
]. Other glossaries identify corporate, international, national, state, regional, military, collective security and safety [18
] (pp. 13–17). However, the catalogue of the term bezpieczeństwo
is much wider and breaks a given taxonomic order; the examples from the literature include either more generic or more specific views, inter alia: state security, societal security, and human security [19
]; social security [20
]; societal security and safety [21
]; gender security [23
]; personal and existential security [24
]; food security [26
]; food safety [27
]; health security and safety [29
]; information security education and training [30
]; energy security [31
]; economic security [34
]; industrial security [35
]; industrial safety [36
]; innovation security [37
]; cybersecurity [38
]; production safety [39
]; climate security [40
]; environmental security [41
]; groundwater security [42
]; water security [43
]; water safety [44
]; ecosystem security [45
]; legal security [46
]; global security [47
]; community security [48
]; community safety [49
The extensive number of definitions of security and safety, their types, multidimensional approaches, and categories reflect the great interest in this concept. In discussions about security and safety, the question of how to maintain or ensure its optimal level in an individual or social group often arises. The answer is education, which provides the chance of keeping universal values and pursuit of freedom, peace and social justice.
2.2. Security and Safety Education
A comprehensive definition of education for security was introduced by A. Pieczywok [1
], who states that education for safety is of particular importance in creating appropriate attitudes and values, acquiring knowledge and skills in the area of counteracting various threats. It is an important part of the didactic and educational process as well as preventive activities, aimed mainly at civic education, communication, as well as pro-health and environmental education. It is also considered a necessary element of education and preparation for living and working in modern conditions. The author points out that the concept of education for security appeared in the process of research on the security system of the Republic of Poland, conducted at the National Defence University from 1993 to 1995. According to Pieczywok, this was related to significant changes in the interpretation of the traditionally understood defence education of society, which was replaced with a new term—education for security and safety (edukacja dla bezpieczeństwa
]. In comparison to defence education, this term has a wider scope because it is associated with patriotic, civic, moral and defence values and attitudes. Therefore, security and safety education is closely related to politics, the education system, the state, the authority and the entire system of exercising it, and its issues are, therefore, important to individuals and social groups. Security and safety education is still equated to defence education of the society (as well as civic education). However, it should be noted that these subjects fall within the scope of security and safety education.
W. Kitler emphasises that security and safety education concerns three aspects: human (individual) security and safety, equipped with a specific system of social values and norms (including imperatives at an individual level); safety and security of groups that want to feel safe in interpersonal relations; security of legally formalised state and interstate structures, such as voivodeship, district, state, or group of states [50
] (p. 16).
According to J. Gołębiewski, security and safety education includes a number of activities, which, according to the group, include:
sharing knowledge on threat occurrence;
shaping “secure and safe” behaviour and attitudes;
motivation to take actions aimed at ensuring security and safety;
disseminating the necessary knowledge and skills in the field of counteracting threats;
making people aware of the scale and type of needs in difficult situations;
developing a sense of responsibility for taking specific actions;
developing appropriate habits of behaviour in emergency situations;
cultivating values in relation to human life and health [51
Due to the wide range of activities, this type of education should cover the whole of society, the different age groups: children, adolescents, and adults. Continuing education, whose subject is adult pedagogy (andragogy), occupies a special place in security and safety education. Usually, adult security and safety education is provided in the form of courses and training.
As security and safety is interdisciplinary, the education can apply to civic, economic, legal, defence, pro-social, health and environmental issues [52
]. It promotes the overriding value, which is the protection of human health and life.
Institutional support and the implementation of security and safety education fall within the competence of primary, secondary and higher education. An important fact is that in Poland, it is a school subject, which was introduced on 1 September 2009, for one hour a week in the entire cycle of education in middle schools. Moreover, from September 1, 2012, it has been in force with the same duration in upper secondary schools. Educational objectives/general requirements include:
Understanding the essence of state security.
Preparing students to act in situations of extraordinary threats (disasters and mass accidents).
Developing skills in the basics of first aid.
Shaping individual and social attitudes conducive to health.
One of the most important skills learned in school is first aid. At an early stage of education, issues related to the protection of health and life should be introduced: assessment of the safety of the scene, identification of a potential threat to life on the basis of simple symptoms, effective calling for help, and undertaking initial life-saving activities [53
At the level of higher education (first, second and third cycle studies, postgraduate studies), fields of study and specialisations are developed in which the learning outcomes can be supplemented with elements of the didactics of the subject (in the case of studies for teachers). The learning outcomes emphasise the importance of knowledge and skills in saving human life, behaviour in hazardous situations, and pro-social attitudes in this area. Shaping pro-health attitudes, knowledge of issues in the field of toxicology, legal standards, civil protection and civil defence, professional behaviour, as well as analysing and understanding security phenomena are other categories that—although they come from different fields—are covered by a common denominator, the security and safety category. Changes in the education system [54
] introduced safety and security education at elementary schools. Learners are taught about prompt reactions in situations threatening health and life, security of the state, the organisation of rescue operations, health education and first aid [55
Apart from the adopted implementation of security and safety education in the educational system, non-institutional forms may emerge; they may involve both national and international levels.
Sustainability and sustainable development are often used interchangeably [56
]. Sustainability means “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” [58
]. The ambiguity and polysemic nature of the concept of sustainability makes it very complex and cross-disciplinary [60
]. Sustainability is based on systems thinking that describes more integrated and holistic understanding of a specific field of knowledge. It is also vital for cross-disciplinary educational activities [61
Emerging global challenges are articulated in the UN Sustainable Development Goals [62
] and the Planetary Boundaries Framework [63
]. The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) enhance peace and prosperity, eradicate poverty and protect the planet. The intended efforts defined in the 17 goals, 169 targets and 232 associated indicators [65
] are to be achieved by 2030. The 17 SDGs are integrated; they recognise that action in one area will affect outcomes in others and that development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability. The planetary boundaries concept presents a set of nine planetary boundaries concerning intrinsic biophysical processes that regulate the stability of the Earth system. With the boundaries, humanity can continue to develop and thrive for generations to come. Similar goals can be traced in security and safety education.
Sustainability issues can be discussed through the economic, environmental and social dimensions [62
]. According to Boar et al. (2020) [67
], the environmental dimension focuses on increasing resource efficiency, responsible use of resources, avoidance of harmful environmental impacts and emissions, and increasing environmental well-being; it corresponds to environmental safety and security education. The social dimension—which involves safeguarding health and safety, respecting laws and regulations, respecting employees and stakeholders’ rights and ethical principles, avoidance of harmful impacts and increasing social well-being—reflects societal and public security. The economic dimension—which involves increasing cost-efficiency, increasing profits and business opportunities, operational stability and risk reduction, increasing attractiveness, and increasing economic well-being—is common with economic security education.