Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of Dimethyl Carbonate as Alternative Biofuel. Performance and Smoke Emissions of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Diesel/Dimethyl Carbonate/Straight Vegetable Oil Triple Blends
Next Article in Special Issue
The European Competency and the Teaching for Understanding Frameworks: Creating Synergies in the Context of Initial Teacher Training in Higher Education
Previous Article in Journal
Embedding Chemistry Education into Environmental and Sustainability Education: Development of a Didaktik Model Based on an Eco-Reflexive Approach
Previous Article in Special Issue
Variability of Higher Education Students’ Learning Styles Depending on Gender, Course, Degree and Institutional Context
 
 
Article

Can Security and Safety Education Support Sustainability? Lessons Learned from Poland

Command and Management Faculty, War Studies University, 00-910 Warsaw, Poland
Academic Editors: Pedro Guilherme Rocha dos Reis and Dong Guo
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 1747; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041747
Received: 29 December 2020 / Revised: 21 January 2021 / Accepted: 2 February 2021 / Published: 6 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education as Sustainable Development)

Abstract

The aim of the article is to prove that sustainable development goals can be supported by security and safety education, where security refers to the state of being free from danger or threats and safety applies to creating protection from risks or dangers. This kind of education, which is obligatory in Polish schools, encompasses interdisciplinary knowledge and universal values focusing on improvement of human existence through minimisation of threats. Through the Word Frequency Query, the most intense descriptors of security and safety education were distinguished and fitted within the framework of sustainable development goals. The obtained data were supported with literature analysis identified with relevant keywords in the Web of Science database. It was proved that security and safety education reflects the idea of sustainable development in a variety of aspects. Since common foundations were identified, it could be inferred that teaching security and safety is a great platform for promotion of sustainable development goals. Moreover, in countries where security and safety education is taught as a separate school subject, more cross-disciplinary sustainability issues should be implemented in the curricula and taught with the use of novel strategies and tools.
Keywords: sustainability; sustainable development goals; security and safety education; cross-disciplinary curricula sustainability; sustainable development goals; security and safety education; cross-disciplinary curricula

1. Introduction

Nowadays, both the challenges of civilisation and the evolution of society generate new consequences, which may be harmful for human development. Crisis and conflicts, pandemics, poverty of social groups, ethnic tensions within states, disintegration of elements of social ties, lack of care for the environment, non-compliance with the rules of social coexistence, weakening of the system of values and moral norms, intensification of social pathology (i.e., addictions, corruption), and social alienation are some of the factors that create unfavorable external conditions for the growth of humanity [1]. The unequal geographical distribution and intensity of these negative consequences make the global environment asymmetric. To minimise the asymmetry, the idea of sustainable development, with its measures and cross-disciplinary goals, is applied. Such reaction to the identified threats is the key issue to maintaining security (understood as creating protection from risks or dangers) and safety (defined as the state of being free from danger or threats and security) [2,3,4]. One of the forms of such reaction is education. In Poland, one of the subjects taught in schools (primary and secondary) is security and safety education; it focuses on improvement of human existence through keeping universal values (such as peace, freedom, social progress, equal rights, human dignity) and minimising threats to human health and the environment. It must be added that security and safety is described in Polish as one-word: bezpieczeństwo. This single word is pronounced in Polish as /bɛspjɛʧɛɲstfɔ/ and it covers the tangible and intangible aspects of both security and safety. The aforementioned subject is taught in Polish primary and secondary schools (as edukacja dla bezpieczeństwa) and applies to basic issues concerning human lives, such as state security, prompt behaviour in crisis situations, and first aid. Tertiary education and lifelong learning training concentrate on more specialised aspects of security and safety. All these educational endeavours aim at improvement of human life, the environment, and equitable development of societies [1]. Similar assumptions can be traced in education for sustainability, the type of education which widens the perspectives on global issues [5].
The aim of the article is to present security and safety education as a pillar supporting the idea of sustainable development. The rationale for raising the issue is the growing interest in the three concepts. In the literature either the links between them, or shifts from security and/or safety to sustainability are explored; the discussions concern various areas, for instance, in software engineering [6], critical systems development [7], urban development [8], agriculture [9]. In this aspect, the popularity of security and safety education as well as education for sustainability will be examined through text mining of publications from the Web of Science database.
The research question (RQ)—whether security and safety education (bezpieczeństwo) supports sustainability—will be answered using qualitative methods, specifically the Word Frequency Query (WFQ) with NVivo as well as review of the literature from the Web of Science database with the use of relevant keywords. The obtained results will be used to identify the categories of education for security that are consistent with the goals of sustainable development. Practical implications, or lessons learned, concern placing more emphasis on sustainable development goals in security and safety education curricula in countries where this kind of education is present. It may be accompanied by the incorporation of novel strategies and didactic tools, which will be conducive to the acquisition of the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values necessary to shape a sustainable future.

2. Basic Concepts

2.1. Security and Safety Are Described in Polish in One Word: “Bezpieczeństwo”

It should be emphasised that the term “security and safety” (bezpieczeństwo) is a broad and multi-faceted concept, discussed in detail and defined many times by Polish scientists. The concept refers to individuals or social groups (micro- and macro-social categories), countries, regions, and the globe. Its understanding is considered as a state (giving a sense of confidence and guaranteeing its behaviour and a chance for improvement; it means no risk of losing something, e.g., health, material goods, respect, feelings) [10] (p. 17) and process (a dynamic phenomenon to which a person is subjected) [11]. The most common definition of security and safety is zero risk and protection against dangers [12]. A similar but more detailed definition is presented by J. Kunikowski: security and safety is the lack of threats and the nation’s ability to protect its internal values against external threats, as well as a contemporary measure of existence, survival and development of the state, society and its citizens [13]. W. Kitler points out that security has an interdisciplinary and utilitarian character; it cannot be considered as a value separate from other values [14]. Another author, B. Balcerowicz, on the other hand, believes that the essence of security consists of two components: a guarantee of inviolable survival and a guarantee of development opportunities [15].
Worth mentioning is the fact that in psychology, safety itself is defined as a basic human need, without which it is impossible to function and develop properly. According to A. Maslow, the author of the five-tier model of human needs, depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid, disturbing the sense of safety over physiological needs makes it difficult to meet higher needs, such as affiliation, respect, and self-fulfilment [16].
The concept of security and safety is described in a multifaceted manner by S. Koziej: it is a process whose most characteristic dimensions are uniformisation (the consequence of the information revolution), asymmetry (caused mainly by a political revolution, such as the collapse of the bipolar world), networking (resulting from the information revolution and globalisation) and integration (from a purely specialised military dimension of security through the level of defence to modern, integrated national and international security) [11].
Regarding security and safety taxonomy, in “Security: A New Framework for Analysis”, the authors list the following sectors: military/state, political, societal, economic and environmental [17]. The authors of the Polish dictionary of the psychology of command and management have specified global, regional, and national security; military, political and social security; physical, mental and social security; structural and personal security [10]. Other glossaries identify corporate, international, national, state, regional, military, collective security and safety [18] (pp. 13–17). However, the catalogue of the term bezpieczeństwo is much wider and breaks a given taxonomic order; the examples from the literature include either more generic or more specific views, inter alia: state security, societal security, and human security [19]; social security [20]; societal security and safety [21,22]; gender security [23]; personal and existential security [24,25]; food security [26]; food safety [27,28]; health security and safety [29]; information security education and training [30]; energy security [31,32,33]; economic security [34]; industrial security [35]; industrial safety [36]; innovation security [37]; cybersecurity [38]; production safety [39]; climate security [40]; environmental security [41]; groundwater security [42]; water security [43]; water safety [44]; ecosystem security [45]; legal security [46]; global security [47]; community security [48]; community safety [49].
The extensive number of definitions of security and safety, their types, multidimensional approaches, and categories reflect the great interest in this concept. In discussions about security and safety, the question of how to maintain or ensure its optimal level in an individual or social group often arises. The answer is education, which provides the chance of keeping universal values and pursuit of freedom, peace and social justice.

2.2. Security and Safety Education

A comprehensive definition of education for security was introduced by A. Pieczywok [1], who states that education for safety is of particular importance in creating appropriate attitudes and values, acquiring knowledge and skills in the area of counteracting various threats. It is an important part of the didactic and educational process as well as preventive activities, aimed mainly at civic education, communication, as well as pro-health and environmental education. It is also considered a necessary element of education and preparation for living and working in modern conditions. The author points out that the concept of education for security appeared in the process of research on the security system of the Republic of Poland, conducted at the National Defence University from 1993 to 1995. According to Pieczywok, this was related to significant changes in the interpretation of the traditionally understood defence education of society, which was replaced with a new term—education for security and safety (edukacja dla bezpieczeństwa) [1]. In comparison to defence education, this term has a wider scope because it is associated with patriotic, civic, moral and defence values and attitudes. Therefore, security and safety education is closely related to politics, the education system, the state, the authority and the entire system of exercising it, and its issues are, therefore, important to individuals and social groups. Security and safety education is still equated to defence education of the society (as well as civic education). However, it should be noted that these subjects fall within the scope of security and safety education.
W. Kitler emphasises that security and safety education concerns three aspects: human (individual) security and safety, equipped with a specific system of social values and norms (including imperatives at an individual level); safety and security of groups that want to feel safe in interpersonal relations; security of legally formalised state and interstate structures, such as voivodeship, district, state, or group of states [50] (p. 16).
According to J. Gołębiewski, security and safety education includes a number of activities, which, according to the group, include:
  • sharing knowledge on threat occurrence;
  • shaping “secure and safe” behaviour and attitudes;
  • motivation to take actions aimed at ensuring security and safety;
  • disseminating the necessary knowledge and skills in the field of counteracting threats;
  • making people aware of the scale and type of needs in difficult situations;
  • developing a sense of responsibility for taking specific actions;
  • developing appropriate habits of behaviour in emergency situations;
  • cultivating values in relation to human life and health [51].
Due to the wide range of activities, this type of education should cover the whole of society, the different age groups: children, adolescents, and adults. Continuing education, whose subject is adult pedagogy (andragogy), occupies a special place in security and safety education. Usually, adult security and safety education is provided in the form of courses and training.
As security and safety is interdisciplinary, the education can apply to civic, economic, legal, defence, pro-social, health and environmental issues [52]. It promotes the overriding value, which is the protection of human health and life.
Institutional support and the implementation of security and safety education fall within the competence of primary, secondary and higher education. An important fact is that in Poland, it is a school subject, which was introduced on 1 September 2009, for one hour a week in the entire cycle of education in middle schools. Moreover, from September 1, 2012, it has been in force with the same duration in upper secondary schools. Educational objectives/general requirements include:
  • Understanding the essence of state security.
  • Preparing students to act in situations of extraordinary threats (disasters and mass accidents).
  • Developing skills in the basics of first aid.
  • Shaping individual and social attitudes conducive to health.
One of the most important skills learned in school is first aid. At an early stage of education, issues related to the protection of health and life should be introduced: assessment of the safety of the scene, identification of a potential threat to life on the basis of simple symptoms, effective calling for help, and undertaking initial life-saving activities [53].
At the level of higher education (first, second and third cycle studies, postgraduate studies), fields of study and specialisations are developed in which the learning outcomes can be supplemented with elements of the didactics of the subject (in the case of studies for teachers). The learning outcomes emphasise the importance of knowledge and skills in saving human life, behaviour in hazardous situations, and pro-social attitudes in this area. Shaping pro-health attitudes, knowledge of issues in the field of toxicology, legal standards, civil protection and civil defence, professional behaviour, as well as analysing and understanding security phenomena are other categories that—although they come from different fields—are covered by a common denominator, the security and safety category. Changes in the education system [54] introduced safety and security education at elementary schools. Learners are taught about prompt reactions in situations threatening health and life, security of the state, the organisation of rescue operations, health education and first aid [55].
Apart from the adopted implementation of security and safety education in the educational system, non-institutional forms may emerge; they may involve both national and international levels.

2.3. Sustainability

Sustainability and sustainable development are often used interchangeably [56,57]. Sustainability means “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” [58,59]. The ambiguity and polysemic nature of the concept of sustainability makes it very complex and cross-disciplinary [60]. Sustainability is based on systems thinking that describes more integrated and holistic understanding of a specific field of knowledge. It is also vital for cross-disciplinary educational activities [61].
Emerging global challenges are articulated in the UN Sustainable Development Goals [62] and the Planetary Boundaries Framework [63,64]. The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) enhance peace and prosperity, eradicate poverty and protect the planet. The intended efforts defined in the 17 goals, 169 targets and 232 associated indicators [65] are to be achieved by 2030. The 17 SDGs are integrated; they recognise that action in one area will affect outcomes in others and that development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability. The planetary boundaries concept presents a set of nine planetary boundaries concerning intrinsic biophysical processes that regulate the stability of the Earth system. With the boundaries, humanity can continue to develop and thrive for generations to come. Similar goals can be traced in security and safety education.
Sustainability issues can be discussed through the economic, environmental and social dimensions [62,66]. According to Boar et al. (2020) [67], the environmental dimension focuses on increasing resource efficiency, responsible use of resources, avoidance of harmful environmental impacts and emissions, and increasing environmental well-being; it corresponds to environmental safety and security education. The social dimension—which involves safeguarding health and safety, respecting laws and regulations, respecting employees and stakeholders’ rights and ethical principles, avoidance of harmful impacts and increasing social well-being—reflects societal and public security. The economic dimension—which involves increasing cost-efficiency, increasing profits and business opportunities, operational stability and risk reduction, increasing attractiveness, and increasing economic well-being—is common with economic security education.

3. Security and Safety Education versus Education for Sustainability—Text Mining Results as Indicators of Scientific Interests

Educators dealing with sustainability teaching seek for effective teaching and learning strategies [68] and focus on shaping competences through contextualisation of learning [69]. Similarly, security and safety education arouse interest in didactics and among scientists [70,71]. To observe the trends, text mining (TM) of the literature indexed in the Web of Science was applied. The combination of key words treated as search topics included the following: (1) “education for sustainability”, “education” AND “sustainability”; (2) “Education” AND “Security” AND “Safety”; (3) “Education” AND “Security” AND “Safety” AND “Sustainability”. The indicated time span was 2017-2021. The explored databases were Web of Science, BIOSIS Citation Index, Current Contents Connect, Data Citation Index, Derwent Innovations Index, KCI - Korean Journal Database (KJD), MEDLINE, Russian Science Citation Index, SciELO Citation Index, and Zoological Record.
Regarding the first topic “Education for sustainability”, the total number of publications was 403. The sum of times cited was 1473 (without self-citations—1338) (Table 1).
In the years 2019 and 2020, this topic attracted the greatest interest. It is noteworthy that the “Education” AND “sustainability” phrase resulted in 10,603 publication records. The citation report feature was not available from a search containing more than 10,000 records. It shows that the issues concerning sustainability and education arouse scientific interest.
The second combination “education” AND “security” AND “safety” resulted in 1283 publication records. The sum of times cited was 2669 (without self-citation—2640) (Table 2).
It is clear that in comparison to 2017 (156) and 2018 (389), the rise in the number of citations for 2019 (893) and 2020 (1170) is significant.
The third combination of the words “education” AND “sustainability” AND “security” AND “safety” showed 60 publication records. The sum of times cited was 520 (without self-citations—519) (Table 3).
Regarding citations, the peak years were 2019 (170) and 2020 (235) in comparison to 2017 (26) and 2018 (86).
All the analyses based on text mining with the use of Web of Science indicate the growing interest in not only sustainability education, but also in security and safety education. It also shows that the links between security and safety education and education for sustainability have become stronger.

4. Materials and Methods

To answer the RQ on whether security and safety education (bezpieczeństwo) supports sustainability, qualitative research methods were applied: Word Frequency Query and literature analysis.
Title, abstract, and keywords analysis of the 1283 publication records indexed in WOS, BCI, CCC, DRCI, DIIDW, KJD, MEDLINE, RSCI, SCIELO, and ZOOREC databases (2017–2021) was performed with NVivo WFQ. The Word Frequency Query searches text and identifies the most frequently used words in the content. It helps to identify major concern in published articles. The results are displayed as a summary list [72].
The analysis was based on the following criteria: stem words, number of most frequent—23, and minimum length—4. The choice of 23 words was related to the fact that the three most frequents concepts were “safety”, “security” and “education”. As a result, the 20 remaining records can serve as descriptors of security and safety education (Table 4). Words such as “also”, “used”, “often”, and “educational”, which appeared as most frequent, were added to a Stop Word List. It means that they were excluded from the content analysis.
The obtained results (words/notions) serve as codes which were assigned to the SDGs. It should be noted that one or more notions can be assigned to a particular SDG. It is related to the interdisciplinary character of the goals. Such a code of co-occurrences may appear in qualitative research [73]. In further steps, the SDGs were accompanied with relevant examples from Web of Science identified though the relevant keywords, which were elicited on the basis of description of the SDG (for instance, for SDG 7 promoting the global awareness in renewable energy, the keywords were “energy security” and “energy safety”; for SDG 2 stressing “achieve food security”, the keywords were “food security”). Matching both the WFQ results and literature examples to the SDGs is aimed at proving that security and safety education supports sustainability. In addition, as qualitative research has a descriptive character [74], the most popular fields of security and defence can be identified.

5. Results

The WFQ resulted in the identification of fields or particular aspects of security and safety. It was observed that the notions describing security and safety education are mostly related to “system” (198), “food” (121), “health” (98), “management” (86), and “communication” (84). Therefore, education on security/safety systems, food security/safety, health security/safety, issues related to management, and communication can be treated as the most emerging categories. Further categories apply to social aspects of security/safety as well as more technical and managerial aspects, such as “devices”, “control”, “services”, and “development”. The remaining set focuses on security/safety of the public, including a particular group—“children”; it also provides context for IT and communication aspects of security and safety (“mobile”, “network”, “intelligent”, and “Internet”), environmental aspect (“environment”), as well as regional (“rural”) and societal (“community”) security/safety aspects (Table 4).
The data obtained from the Word Frequency Query were further assigned to the SDGs and accompanied with examples from the literature (Table 5).

6. Discussion

Both the WFQ results and examples from the literature indicate that there are common foundations for both sustainability and security and safety. The obtained results proved that security and safety education supports sustainability. The SDGs and security and safety themes allow for drawing a of conclusion that the content of didactic programmes can be easily modified towards sustainability aspects. For instance, the notions that apply to the SDG 1—"End poverty in all its forms everywhere”—are “system” (1.38%, the highest rank in the WFQ), “management” (0.60%), and “public” (0.28%). Education on state security, societal security, and human security may help to achieve the goal. The first two notions are shared with SDG 10—“Reducing Inequality”: “system” and “management” are accompanied with “social” (0.47%), “community” (0.26%), “rural” (0.22%) descriptors. The SDG 2—"End hunger, achieve food security”—can be realised through food security and food safety education. It must be stressed that the notion “food” was one of the most frequent in the WFQ analysis (0.84%). The SDG 3—"Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”—concerns health security, health safety as well as personal and existential security issues. “Health” was also highly ranked in the WFQ (0.68%). The SDG 4—"Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all”—can be realised through seeking opportunities for maintaining quality education and distributing up-to-date knowledge, e.g., information security education and training [21] relevant for different sectors. For this goal, the identified notions were “communication” (0.58%) and “children” (0.27%). The SDG 5 on gender equality is reflected in the notions of “social” and “community” and realised through gender security education. The SDGs 6, 7, 13, 14, and 15 concern clean water, energy, combating climate change, life below water and on the land. They can be described with the notions of “environment” (0.22%) and “management” and taught within water security/safety, energy security, climate security, groundwater security, and ecosystem security subjects. The SDG 8 on decent work and economic growth revolves around the “management” and “control” (0.36%) notions and corresponds to economic security education. The SDG 9 emphasising the role of industry, innovation and infrastructure was annotated with words such as “device” (0.45%), “service” (0.32%), “intelligent” (0.23%), “network” (0.26%), “mobile” (0.27%), “Internet” (0.22%), “server” (0.22%), and “development” (0.31%) and realised through industry security/safety, innovation security, cybersecurity education. For the SDG 11—“Sustainable Cities and Communities”—the assigned notions are “network”, “mobile”, “communication”, and education in this area may concern community security. “Responsible Consumption and Production”, the SDG 12, was described with “management” and “control”, and production safety education may be relevant for attaining the goal. The SDG 16—“Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions”—is reflected by the “control”, “management”, and “communication” notions, and legal security education may be supportive for the goal realisation. “Partnerships for the Goals”, the last SDG goal, was depicted with “management”, “community”, “network”, “communication” descriptors, and global security was assigned as a relevant subject for learning.
It was observed that the Sustainable Development Goals were classified by sustainability dimensions: economy—SDGs 8, 9, 10, and 12; society—SDGs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 11, and 16; environment—SDGs 6, 13, 14, and 15 [67,75]. Such a classification could help derive specific categories for security and safety, which could serve further qualitative analysis. However, due to the interdisciplinary character of security and safety, such a task would be intrinsic and difficult. For instance, for the Goal 1—“No Poverty”—it is not only the case of society but also the economy and is related to state policy. State security, societal security and safety are interwoven. Within this goal, education for social security to motivate and prepare for work (active social policy) is required.
The limitations of the study concern the scope of Web of Science search (2017-2021) as well as relying mostly on the domestic (Polish) literature in explanation of the scope of security and safety education. On the other hand, such a perspective may cast a new light on the issue. The limitations also concern the methods used in the study, specifically ambiguity related to words [76] resulting from the WFQ and assigned to the SDG.

7. Conclusions

Education in the field of security and safety is the most effective and cheapest form of counteracting threats. It is the basic path in shaping human development: it provides individuals with appropriate knowledge and necessary skills. As a multi-thematic category, it requires the acquisition and consolidation of competences from different areas as well as the involvement of state authorities, relevant services, and organisations. Security and safety education supports sustainable development. Research results proved that many issues from the security and safety area fall within the scope of sustainability and confirmed that security, safety, and sustainability have common foundations which refer to universal values and minimising threats to human health and the environment. Regardless of the taxonomy, categories, and types of security and safety, close attention should be paid to the fact that security and safety education should be realised through the lens of sustainable development goals.
Two main conclusions can be drawn from the preceding analyses.
  • First, in states where security and safety education is a school subject, sustainability goals should be represented and emphasised in the core curricula. Formalising the relationship between the legislator and the entity implementing the tasks of security and safety education will allow for the creation of programmes relying on sustainable development promotion.
  • Second, education for sustainability is a frame of mind [77]; it means that teaching security and safety should be driven by the SDGs. To make this task easier, any future endeavours have to focus on the employment of novel strategies as well as didactic tools. They will help teachers to design real-life, cross-disciplinary, practical, and meaningful activities. Knowledge, skills, and attitudes can be shaped through the use of collaborative platforms [78], or real-life, scenarios realised in a 3D environment [79]. In this way, crucial competences and the awareness of sustainable behaviours can be significantly improved.
Last but not least, the combination of security and safety education with sustainability may trigger newer and more complex research directions, for instance, the coherent concept of teaching security and safety education, combating threats related to biological and chemical agents for sustainable development, or effective teaching about hazardous materials in a controlled virtual environment. Future analyses and experiments involving new perspectives and state-of-the-art solutions will open new ways of thinking and contribute to a better, sustainable future.

Funding

This research was funded by the Ministry of National Defence of the Republic of Poland, Research Grant Programme, No. GB/4/2018/208/2018/DA (2018–2020).

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

The study was carried out with the use of NVivo software ver. 12.0 and ten scientific databases. All the data are included in the article.

Conflicts of Interest

The author declares no conflict of interest. The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results.

References

  1. Pieczywok, A. Edukacja dla Bezpieczeństwa Wobec Zagrożeń i Wyzwań Współczesności; Akademia Obrony Narodowej: Warsaw, Poland, 2012. [Google Scholar]
  2. Security. English Oxford Living Dictionaries. Available online: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/.security (accessed on 21 January 2021).
  3. Safety. English Oxford Living Dictionaries. Available online: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/.safety (accessed on 10 May 2018).
  4. Bubnovskaia, O.; Leonidova, V.; Lysova, A. Security or safety: Quantitative and comparative analysis of usage in research works published in 2004–2019. Behav. Sci. 2019, 9, 146. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  5. Scheunpflug, A.; Asbrand, B. Global education and education for sustainability. Environ. Educ. Res. 2006, 12, 33–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Penzenstadler, B.; Raturi, A.; Richardson, D.; Tomlinson, B. Safety, security, now sustainability: The nonfunctional requirement for the 21st century. IEEE Softw. 2014, 31, 40–47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Lakhdhar, Y.; Rekhis, S.; Boudriga, N. Proactive security for safety and sustainability of mission critical systems. IEEE Trans. Sustain. Comput. 2018, 1. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Ceccato, V.; Lukyte, N. Safety and sustainability in a city in transition: The case of Vilnius, Lithuania. Cities 2011, 28, 83–94. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Mantovani, A. Sustainability, security and safety in the feed-to-fish chain: Focus on toxic contamination. Int. J. Nutr. Food Sci. 2015, 4, 6–24. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  10. Borkowski, J.; Dyrda, M.; Kanarski, L.; Rokicki, B. Słownik Terminów z Zakresu Psychologii Dowodzenia i Zarządzania; Akademia Obrony Narodowej: Warsaw, Poland, 2000. [Google Scholar]
  11. Koziej, S. Między Piekłem a Rajem. Szare Bezpieczeństwo na Początku XXI wieku; Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek: Toruń, Poland, 2008. [Google Scholar]
  12. Zięba, R. O tożsamości nauk o bezpieczeństwie. Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Obrony Narodowej 2012, 1, 7–22. [Google Scholar]
  13. Kunikowski, J.; Turek, A. Bezpieczeństwo i dyplomacja. Słownik terminów; Pedagogium Wyższa Szkoła Pedagogiki Resocjalizacyjnej: Warsaw, Poland, 2009. [Google Scholar]
  14. Kitler, W. Podstawowe kategorie bezpieczeństwa narodowego. In Bezpieczeństwo Ludności Cywilnej. Pojęcie, Organizacja i Zadania w Czasie Pokoju, Kryzysu i Wojny; Kitler, W., Skrabacz, A., Eds.; Towarzystwo Wiedzy Obronnej: Warszawa, Poland, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  15. Balcerowicz, B. Bezpieczeństwo Polityczne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej; Akademia Obrony Narodowej: Warsaw, Poland, 2004. [Google Scholar]
  16. Maslow, A.H. Toward a Psychology of Being, 3rd ed.; Wiley: New York, NY, USA, 1998. [Google Scholar]
  17. Buzan, B.; Wæver, O.; De Wilde, J. Security: A New Framework for Analysis; Lynne Rienner Publishers: Boulder, CO, USA, 1998. [Google Scholar]
  18. Kaczmarek, J.; Łepkowski, W.; Zdrodowski, B. Słownik Terminów z Zakresu Bezpieczeństwa Narodowego; Akademia Obrony Narodowej: Warsaw, Poland, 2008. [Google Scholar]
  19. Hama, H.H. State security, societal security, and human security. Jadavpur J. Int. Relat. 2017, 21, 1–19. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Gechert, S.; Paetz, C.; Villanueva, P. The macroeconomic effects of social security contributions and benefits. J. Monet. Econ. 2020. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Høyland, S.A. Exploring and modeling the societal safety and societal security concepts—A systematic review, empirical study and key implications. Saf. Sci. 2018, 110, 7–22. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Domalewska, D. Counteracting threats to societal security at school. Saf. Def. 2020, 6, 31–47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Davies, S.E.; True, J.; Swaine, A. Pursuing gender security. In The Oxford Handbook of Women, Peace, and Security; True, J., Davies, S.E., Eds.; Oxford University Press: New York, NY, USA, 2019; pp. 764–778. [Google Scholar]
  24. Ivanov, M.S.; Seryy, A.V.; Yanitskiy, M.S. Mobility as strategy of providing personal security in postmodern society. In Proceedings of the European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences, RPTSS 2017 International Conference on Research Paradigms Transformation in Social Sciences, Tomsk, Russia, 18–21 May 2017; pp. 1187–1196. [Google Scholar]
  25. Sears, N.A. Existential security: Towards a security framework for the survival of humanity. Glob. Policy 2020, 11, 255–266. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Prosekov, A.Y.; Ivanova, S.A. Food security: The challenge of the present. Geoforum 2018, 91, 73–77. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  27. Carvalho, F.P. Pesticides, environment, and food safety. Food Energy Secur. 2017, 6, 48–60. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Barrett, T.; Feng, Y. Evaluation of food safety curriculum effectiveness: A longitudinal study of high-school-aged youths’ knowledge retention, risk-perception, and perceived behavioral control. Food Control 2021, 121, 107587. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Raina MacIntyre, C.; Engells, T.E.; Scotch, M.; Heslop, D.J.; Gumel, A.B.; Poste, G.; Chen, X.; Herche, W.; Steinhofel, K.; Lim, S.; et al. Converging and emerging threats to health security. Environ. Syst. Decis. 2018, 38, 198–207. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  30. Amankwa, E.; Loock, M.; Kritzinger, E. A conceptual analysis of information security education, information security training and information security awareness definitions. In Proceedings of the Computer Science, The 9th International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST-2014), London, UK, 8–10 December 2014; pp. 248–252. [Google Scholar]
  31. Gökgöz, F.; Güvercin, M.T. Energy security and renewable energy efficiency in EU. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2018, 96, 226–239. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  32. Azzuni, A.; Breyer, C. Definitions and dimensions of energy security: A literature review. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Energy Environ. 2017, 7, e268. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Sutrisno, A.; Nomaler, Ӧ.; Alkemade, F. Has the global expansion of energy markets truly improved energy security? Energy Policy 2021, 148, 111931. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Salikov, Y.A.; Mikhailiuk, V.S. Methodological approach to the terminological analysis of the key concepts of economic security. Proc. Voronezh State Univ. Eng. Technol. 2019, 81, 387–392. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  35. Yu, H.; Chang, H. A meta-analysis of industrial security research for sustainable organizational growth. Sustainability 2020, 12, 9526. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  36. Cooper, M.D. The efficacy of industrial safety science constructs for addressing serious injuries & fatalities (SIFs). Saf. Sci. 2019, 120, 164–178. [Google Scholar]
  37. Edwards, B. The three paradoxes of innovation security. In Insecurity and Emerging Biotechnology. Governing Misuse Potential; Palgrave Pivot: Cham, Switzerland, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  38. Senarak, C. Port cybersecurity and threat: A structural model for prevention and policy development. Asian J. Shipp. Logist. 2021, 37, 20–36. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  39. Zhou, X.-H.; Shen, S.-L.; Xu, Y.-S.; Zhou, A.-N. Analysis of production safety in the construction industry of China in 2018. Sustainability 2019, 11, 4537. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  40. Odeyemi, C. The UNFCCC, the EU, and the UNSC: A research agenda proposal for the climate security question. Adv. Clim. Chang. Res. 2020, 11, 442–452. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  41. De Grenade, R.; House-Peters, L.; Scott, C.A.; Thapa, B.; Mills-Novoa, M.; Gerlak, A.; Verbist, K. The nexus: Reconsidering environmental security and adaptive capacity. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain. 2016, 21, 15–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  42. Calow, R.C.; Macdonald, A.M.; Nicol, A.L.; Robins, N.S. Ground water security and drought in Africa: Linking availability, access, and demand. Ground Water 2010, 48, 246–256. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  43. Alvarez, P.J.J.; Chan, C.K.; Elimelech, M.; Halas, N.J.; Villagran, D. Emerging opportunities for nanotechnology to enhance water security. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2018, 13, 634–641. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. Ferrero, G.; Setty, K.; Rickert, B.; George, S.; Rinehold, A.; DeFrance, J.; Bartram, J. Capacity building and training approaches for water safety plans: A comprehensive literature review. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 2019, 222, 615–627. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. Chen, H.-G.; Zhang, Y.H.P. New biorefineries and sustainable agriculture: Increased food, biofuels, and ecosystem security. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2015, 47, 117–132. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  46. Melkevik, B. L’exigence De Securite Juridique: “Le Faire Juridique” a L’epreuve De La Confiance Cosocietaire. Int. J. Doctrin. Judic. Legis. 2020, 1, 174–194. [Google Scholar]
  47. Avant, D.; Braumoeller, B.; Chenoweth, E.; Croco, S.; Siniver, A.; Zarakol, A. Exclusion and inclusion in global security studies. J. Glob. Secur. Stud. 2020, 5, 1–3. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  48. Bonsu, G.A.; Abaitey, A.K.; Chisin, A.V. Exploring community security interventions using design thinking approach. J. Appl. Secur. Res. 2019, 15, 73–83. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  49. Clancey, G. Teaching crime prevention and community safety. In Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Criminology; Palmer, D., Ed.; Palgrave Macmillan: Cham, Switzerland, 2020; pp. 59–85. [Google Scholar]
  50. Kitler, W. Istota bezpieczeństw narodowego. In Edukacja Obronna Społeczeństwa; Wiśniewski, B., Fehler, W., Eds.; Wydawnictwo Niepaństwowej Szkoły Pedagogicznej: Białystok, Poland, 2006. [Google Scholar]
  51. Gołębiewski, J. Edukacja dla bezpieczeństwa. Edukacja dla Bezpieczeństwa, Czasopismo dla Dyrektorów Szkół i Nauczycieli 2001, 1, 50–54. [Google Scholar]
  52. Pieczywok, A. Bezpieczeństwo jako wartość edukacyjna i badawcza. In “Rodzinna Europa”. Europejska Myśl Polityczno-Prawna u Progu XXI Wieku; Fiktus, P., Malewski, H., Marszał, M., Eds.; E-Wydawnictwo, Prawnicza i Ekonomiczna Biblioteka Cyfrowa, Wydział Prawa, Administracji i Ekonomii Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego: Wroclaw, Poland, 2015; pp. 457–480. [Google Scholar]
  53. Minister of National Education. Regulation of the Minister of National Education of February 14, 2017 on the Core Curriculum for Pre-School Education and the Core Curriculum for General Education for Primary School, Including Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability or Significant, General Education for the First-Cycle Industry School, General Education for a Special School Preparing for Work and General Education for Post-Secondary Schools; Journal of Laws of the Republic of Poland, Minister of National Education: Warsaw, Poland, 2017. [Google Scholar]
  54. Minister of National Education. Regulation of the Minister of National Education from 26 July 2018 Amending the Regulation on the Core Curriculum of Pre-School Education and the Core Curriculum of General Education for Primary School, Including Moderate or Severe Moderate Schoolchildren, General Education for the Industry Level School, Education General for the Special School for the Preparation for Work and General Education for the Post-Secondary School; Journal of Laws of the Republic of Poland, Minister of National Education: Warsaw, Poland, 2018. [Google Scholar]
  55. Araucz-Boruc, A. Preparation of young people in Poland to operate in dangerous situations as an element of national security system. De Securitate et Defensione. O Bezpieczeństwie i Obronności 2019, 1, 144–154. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  56. Waas, T.; Hugé, J.; Verbruggen, A.; Wright, T. Sustainable Development: A Bird’s Eye View. Sustainability 2011, 3, 1637–1661. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  57. Escrig-Olmedo, E.; Fernández-Izquierdo, M.; Ferrero-Ferrero, I.; Rivera-Lirio, J.; Muñoz-Torres, M. Rating the raters: Evaluating how ESG rating agencies integrate sustainability principles. Sustainability 2019, 11, 915. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  58. Brundtland Commission. Our Common Future; World Commission on Environment and Development: Brussels, Belgium, 1987. [Google Scholar]
  59. Gazzola, P.; Pezzetti, R.; Amelio, S.; Grechi, D. Non-financial information disclosure in Italian public interest companies: A sustainability reporting perspective. Sustainability 2020, 12, 6063. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  60. Salas-Zapata, W.A.; Ortiz-Muñoz, S.M. Analysis of meanings of the concept of sustainability. Sustain. Dev. 2019, 27, 153–161. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  61. Nguyen, N.C.; Graham, D.; Ross, H.; Maani, K.; Bosch, O. Educating systems thinking for sustainability: Experience with a developing country. Syst. Res. Behav. Sci. 2012, 29, 14–29. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  62. United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Available online: https://sdgs.un.org/goals (accessed on 12 December 2020).
  63. The Nine Planetary Boundaries. Available online: http://www.stockholmresilience.org/research/planetary-boundaries/planetary-boundaries/about-the-research/the-nine-planetary-boundaries.html (accessed on 12 December 2020).
  64. Steffen, W.; Richardson, K.; Rockstrom, J.; Cornell, S.E.; Fetzer, I.; Bennett, E.M.; Biggs, R.; Carpenter, S.R.; de Vries, W.; de Wit, C.A.; et al. Planetary boundaries: Guiding human development on a changing planet. Science 2015, 347, 1259855. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  65. Andries, A.; Morse, S.; Murphy, R.; Lynch, J.; Woolliams, E. Seeing sustainability from space: Using Earth observation data to populate the UN sustainable development goal indicators. Sustainability 2019, 11, 5062. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  66. Lozano, R.; Huisingh, D. Inter-linking issues and dimensions in sustainability reporting. J. Clean Prod. 2011, 19, 99–107. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  67. Boar, A.; Bastida, R.; Marimon, F. A systematic literature review. Relationships between the sharing economy, sustainability and sustainable development goals. Sustainability 2020, 12, 6744. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  68. Tejedor, G.; Segalàs, J.; Barrón, Á.; Fernández-Morilla, M.; Fuertes, M.; Ruiz-Morales, J.; Gutiérrez, I.; García-González, E.; Aramburuzabala, P.; Hernández, À. Didactic strategies to promote competencies in sustainability. Sustainability 2019, 11, 2086. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  69. Ayers, J. Competence literate but context lacking? Investigating the potential of study abroad programs to promote sustainability competence acquisition in students. Sustainability 2020, 12, 5389. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  70. Dong, X.; Yang, Z.; Yan, D.; Li, X.; Chang, R. Research on the practice teaching of safety education in colleges and universities. Adv. Soc. Sci. 2019, 8, 1740–1749. [Google Scholar]
  71. Jin, G.; Nakayama, S.; Tu, M. Game based learning for safety and security education. J. Educ. Learn. 2020, 14, 114–122. [Google Scholar]
  72. Jackson, K.; Bazeley, P. Qualitative Data Analysis with NVivo, 3rd ed.; SAGE Publications Limited: Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  73. Friese, S.; Soratto, J.; Pires, D. Carrying Out a Computer-Aided Thematic Content Analysis with ATLAS.ti; Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity: Göttingen, Germany, 2018. [Google Scholar]
  74. Nassaji, H. Qualitative and descriptive research: Data type versus data analysis. Lang. Teach. Res. 2015, 19, 129–132. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  75. SRC SDG by Dimensions. Available online: https://www.stockholmresilience.org/research/research-news/2016–06–14-how-food-connects-all-the-sdgs.html (accessed on 12 December 2020).
  76. Ochieng, P.A. An analysis of the strengths and limitation of qualitative and quantitative research paradigms. Probl. Educ. 21st Century 2009, 13, 13–18. [Google Scholar]
  77. Bonnett, M. Education for sustainability as a frame of mind. Environ. Educ. Res. 2002, 8, 9–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  78. Echeverria, A.; Ariz, I.; Moreno, J.; Peralta, J.; Gonzalez, E.M. Learning plant biodiversity in nature: The use of the citizen–science platform iNaturalist as a collaborative tool in secondary education. Sustainability 2021, 13, 735. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  79. Gawlik-Kobylińska, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Maciejewski, P. Improvement of a sustainable world through the application of innovative didactic tools in green chemistry teaching: A review. J. Chem. Educ. 2020, 97, 916–924. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Table 1. Web of Science search illustrating the research activity in the field of education for sustainability from 2017 to 2021 (search terms: TOPIC: “education for sustainability”. Sum of times cited.
Table 1. Web of Science search illustrating the research activity in the field of education for sustainability from 2017 to 2021 (search terms: TOPIC: “education for sustainability”. Sum of times cited.
YearsResults
201778
2018183
2019464
2020735
20214
Total1473
Table 2. Web of Science search illustrating the research activity in the field of education for sustainability, security and safety from 2017 to 2021 (search terms: TOPIC: “education” AND “security” AND “safety”. Sum of times cited.
Table 2. Web of Science search illustrating the research activity in the field of education for sustainability, security and safety from 2017 to 2021 (search terms: TOPIC: “education” AND “security” AND “safety”. Sum of times cited.
YearsResults
2017156
2018389
2019893
20201170
202111
Total2669
Table 3. Web of Science search illustrating the research activity in the field of education for sustainability, security and safety from 2017 to 2021 (search terms: TOPIC: “education” AND “sustainability” AND “security” AND “safety”. Sum of times cited.
Table 3. Web of Science search illustrating the research activity in the field of education for sustainability, security and safety from 2017 to 2021 (search terms: TOPIC: “education” AND “sustainability” AND “security” AND “safety”. Sum of times cited.
YearsResults
201726
201886
2019170
2020235
20213
Total520
Table 4. Security and safety education topics. NVivo Word Frequency Query of titles, abstracts, keywords from 1283 publications from Web of Science, BIOSIS Citation Index, Current Contents Connect, Data Citation Index, Derwent Innovations Index, KCI - Korean Journal Database (KJD), MEDLINE, Russian Science Citation Index, SciELO Citation Index, and Zoological Record databases.
Table 4. Security and safety education topics. NVivo Word Frequency Query of titles, abstracts, keywords from 1283 publications from Web of Science, BIOSIS Citation Index, Current Contents Connect, Data Citation Index, Derwent Innovations Index, KCI - Korean Journal Database (KJD), MEDLINE, Russian Science Citation Index, SciELO Citation Index, and Zoological Record databases.
WordLengthCountWeighted Percentage (%)
Safety63122.17
Security82781.93
Education92071.44
System61981.38
Food41210.84
Health6980.68
Management10860.60
Communication13840.58
Social6670.47
Device6650.45
Control7520.36
Service7460.32
Development11450.31
Public6400.28
Children8390.27
Mobile6390.27
Network7380.26
Community9370.26
Intelligent11330.23
Environment11320.22
Internet8310.22
Rural5310.22
Server6310.22
Table 5. Data from the Word Frequency Query assigned to the Sustainable Development Goals.
Table 5. Data from the Word Frequency Query assigned to the Sustainable Development Goals.
NrSustainable Development GoalsWord Frequency QueryExamples from Literature Analysis
1No Poverty.
“End poverty in all its forms everywhere”.
System, public, management.State security, societal security, and human security [19]
Societal security and safety [21].
2Zero Hunger.
“End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture”.
Food.Food security [26], food safety [27,28].
3Good Health and Well-being. “Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”. Health. Health security and safety [29]; personal and existential security [24,25].
4Quality Education. “Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all”. Children, communication. Various aspects of maintaining quality of education, distributed knowledge, which should be up-to date, e.g., information security education and training [30] to support different sectors.
5Gender Equality. “Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls”. Social, community. Gender security [23].
6Clean Water and Sanitation. “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all”. Environment, management. Water security [43], water safety [44].
7Affordable and Clean Energy. “Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all”. Environment, management. Energy security [31,32,33].
8Decent Work and Economic Growth. “Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all”. Management, control. Economic security [34].
9Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure. “Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialisation, and foster innovation”. Device, service, intelligent, network, mobile, internet, server, development. Industrial security [35], industrial safety [36], innovation security [37], cybersecurity [38].
10Reducing Inequality. “Reduce income inequality within and among countries”. System, management, social, community, rural. Social security [20].
11Sustainable Cities and Communities. “Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable”. Network, mobile, communication. Community security [48], community safety [49].
12Responsible Consumption and Production. “Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns”. Management, control. Production safety [39].
13Climate Action. “Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts by regulating emissions and promoting developments in renewable energy”. Environment, management. Climate security [40].
14Life Below Water. “Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development”. Environment, management. Environmental security [41], groundwater security [42].
15Life On Land. “Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss”. Environment, management. Ecosystem security [45].
16Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions. “Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels”. Control, management, communication. Legal security [46].
17Partnerships for the Goals. “Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalise the global partnership for sustainable development”. Management, community, network, communication. Global security [47].
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Back to TopTop