Characterization of SDGs towards Coastal Management: Sustainability Performance and Cross-Linking Consequences
1.1. Coastal Sustainability
1.2. Literature Review
1.2.1. Coastal Flood Management
1.2.2. Assessment of Sustainability
1.3. Problem Statement and Aim
2.1. SDG-SIS Framework
2.2. Selection of Case Studies
2.3. Definition of the Functionalities (Step I)
- Serving coastal ecosystems to reduce flood frequency;
- Serving socioeconomic inclusive growth;
- Valuating biodiversity and ecosystem;
- Regulating emission reduction;
- Controlling coastal flooding and erosion reduction;
- Serving wellbeing of humans.
2.4. Consideration of SDG Targets (Step II)
2.5. Selection Criteria of the SDG Coastal KPIs (Step III)
- UN metadata available . The SDG targets are selected based on the criterion A: Are UN Tier 1 metadata available? If available, go to step B; if not available, go to step D.
- Are UN metadata relevant to coastal resilience solutions and effective adaptation strategies of the coastal infrastructure ? The SDG targets are selected based on the following criterion B: Is there a relationship with the coastal relevancy? If relevant, go to step C; if not relevant, go to step D.
- Are UN metadata measurable in terms of an easy-to-estimate parameter ? The SDG targets are selected based on the following criteria: C: What is the specificity of the indicator for coastal assessment; Does the “specificity of the indicator” relate to its measurability in terms of an easy-to-score parameter? If measurable, go for use as target; if not measurable, go to step D.
- Do the non-UN metadata concern accurate and relevant numeric data which are available from official statistical sources ? The SDG targets are selected based on the following criterion: D: Are accurate, relevant numeric data available from official statistical sources? If available, go for usable target; if not available, they are not usable for the target.
2.6. Assessment of SDG-KPI Numeric Data (Step IV)
- The total sum of the individual SDG-KPI outcomes represents the SIS. In this study, 12 SDG-KPIs are selected (Step III) for the assessment. This range of individual SDG-KPI (in formula: KPI) can be divided into two different sub-values, respectively, SISa and SISb.
- SISa entails the sum of SDG-KPI outcomes that represent a positive impact towards the SIS—for example, renewable energy (SDG 7.2) with KPI expressed in percentage renewable electricity share of total electricity output. Each of the individual outcomes are linearly standardized on a scale of 0–100 percent, which is generated using the individual KPI outcome divided by the best-scoring KPI. For the SISa values, the KPImax must be used.
- SISb entails the sum of SDG-KPI outcomes that represent a negative impact towards the SIS—for example, CO2 emission reduction (SDG 9.4) with KPI expressed in CO2 emissions per capita. For SISb, the lowest-scoring KPI (KPImin) is used to linearly standardize the individual KPI outcome. Moreover, the SISb values are converted with a reciprocal value of 1. The output correlation variables from the comprehensive results can be compared with the SDG-KPIs of the no-impact benchmark coast.
2.7. Statistical Analysis
3.1. Selection of Coastal Locations
- Five cases, including coastlines with different geologies, were selected: (A1) Mississippi Delta of Louisiana, United States of America, (A2) Caribbean Delta of Colombia, (A3) South Pacific Ocean, Queensland, Australia, (A4) East Sea Mekong Delta, Vietnam, and (A5) North Sea Delta of The Netherlands.
- Five cases, including NBS sand nourishment projects within the North Sea region in Netherlands, were selected, representing the set with the same geology: (B1) beach nourishments Domburg and (B2) Texel, (B3) combination of shoreface-beach nourishment Callantsoog, (B4) sand motor nourishment Delfland, and (B5) system nourishment Ameland Inlet.
3.2. Definition of Functionalities (Step I)
3.3. Consideration of SDG Targets (Step II)
3.4. Selection of the SDG Coastal KPIs (Step III)
3.5. SDG Assessment of Coastline Sustainability (Step IV)
3.6. SDG Assessment of Sand Nourishment Cases (Step IV)
4.1. SDG-SIS Framework
4.2. Consideration of SDGs
4.2.1. SIS for Coastline Cases
4.2.2. SIS for Sand Nourishment Cases
4.3. Data Availability for Interpretation and Decision-Making
4.4. Multiple Modes of Assessment Applicability
4.5. Coastal Flood Protection Management in an Adaptable Manner
- The SDG-SIS methodology relied on chosen functionalities; the selected SDG targets and corresponding KPIs facilitate measurement of the progress towards climate resilient coastal protection. Moreover, the SDG-SIS framework is able to systematically consider SDG targets to support an integrated assessment of coastal sustainability. Moreover, it is illustrated that the complexities in geographical and socioeconomic characteristics may influence the selection of SDG targets.
- The connection between SDG targets and KPIs makes it possible to quantitatively and specifically measure the SDGs, resulting in the SDG-SIS for coastal flood protection management to enhance climate-resilient and adaptable coastal development. Consideration of coastal system features including ecosystem functionalities resulted in the selection of 38 out of the 169 SDG targets. Taking into account the two sets of cases—respectively, a set global coastlines and sand nourishments in the Netherlands—not all 38 targets were able to be connected with KPIs. In this study, indicator selection is dependent on the availability of public numeric data, resulting in an assessment of the case studies with only 12 SDG targets out of selected 36 SDG targets, respectively: 6.6 (water quantity and quality), 7.2 (renewable energy), 8.2 (economic productivity), 8.9 (sustainable tourism), 9.4 (CO2 emission reduction), 9.5 (knowledge and innovation), 11.5 (disaster risk reduction), 11.6 (air quality), 12.8 (flood awareness), 13.2 (coastal erosion/accretion), 14.2 (biodiversity abundance), 16.7 (institutional capacity).
- The crucial role of adequate and specific data is demonstrated as a boundary condition for identifying priorities on early action in order to achieve the SDGs. In this study, open source metadata derived from international agencies prove to be suitable to serve as SDG-KPI. Missing SDG targets can enhance the efficacy of strategies for the improvement of SDG-related indicators and encompassing integrated strategies for sustainable flood protection management. As shown by the minor differences in the level of sustainability between the examined case studies, accurate and available data are essential to ensure a reliable level of distinctiveness of the SDG-KPIs to be able to make valuable interpretations.
- The five NBS sand nourishment cases show a relatively small number of SDG-KPIs which turn out to be valuable for application as SIS. However, individual SDG target scores may be useful as separate SDG criteria, although not in terms of SIS. The available SDG-KPI data of the five global cases perform for some coastlines a low SIS, which indicates a weak climate-resilient and adaptable coastline. However, the SIS can be rather unbalanced due to the high SIS and at the same time, e.g., high emission rates of CO2 for some coastline cases. This concludes that for an individual SDG target, outcomes are crucial to reveal the details of appropriate interpretation of climate-resilient and adaptable coastlines. Therefore, cross-linking cumulative consequences do not directly or definitively indicate the level of sustainability. This denotes the importance of prioritizing SDGs to serve as an instrument for policymakers to optimize the climate robustness of coasts.
- The SDG-SIS framework proves to be flexible in benchmarking progress against defined thresholds which denote the achievement of SDGs. The framework supports coastal policy by addressing long-term measures and providing a sustainable vision for future implementation. The SDG-SIS framework is a starting point for discussions on integrated policy since it shows that a set of indicators can be successfully applied to assess flood protection management, rendering it applicable on a global or regional scale for coherent integrated policymaking across sectors to enhance climate-resilient and adaptive management. Moreover, the SDG-SIS framework proves to be flexibly applicable, provided there are accurate data, for other policy domains such as asset management.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|Coastal area||Mississippi Delta in Louisiana Gulf of Mexico||Caribbean Delta of Colombia||Vietnam Mekong Delta||Queensland Pacific||North Sea coast in The Netherlands||Netherlands, Delfland nourishment||Netherlands, Ameland Inlet nourishment||Netherlands, Callantsoog nourishment||Netherlands, Domburg nourishment||Netherlands, Texel nourishment|
|Metropolis in coastal area||New Orleans||Cartagena, Barranquilla||Ho Chi Min City||Brisbane||Cadzand-Den Helder||The Hague||Small villages||Small villages||Small villages||Small villages|
|Coastal inhabitants * 1000 ||4.684||9.746||17.510||4.165||8.219||515||3.7||2.4||106.5||13.6|
|Amount of people per km2||35||73||318||12||504||6.344||58||96||147||86|
|City population in coastal area (inhabitants * 1000) for years 2010 & 2025 ||(1.167) 1.224||(950); Nd||(6.166); 9.662||(2.044); 2.694||(6.999); 7.285||Nd||Nd||Nd||Nd||Nd|
|Environmental- & climate protection plan (Table 2)||+|
|Coastal defense aim||Natural defenses and habitat||Protecting coastlines||Natural defenses; Mekong Delta Plan (MDP) has no formal status||Protecting coastlines||Protecting coastlines||Delta program Coast Innovation pilot;||Delta program Coast innovation pilot||Part of Delta program Coast||Part of Delta program Coast||Part of Delta program Coast|
|Marine Protection Areas (% of terr. waters) or N2000 or marine/coastal wetlands (RAMSAR)||41.1||2.1||0.6/|
|Goal of long-term or Master Plans||Resilience||Resilience||Safe prosperous and sustainable delta||Management of coastal areas, vulnerable to erosion||Viable coast||Experiment||Experiment||Viable coast||Viable coast||Viable coast|
|Policy model climate change||Protection and adapting||“Dutch delta approach”||Socioeconomic planning||Cost-effective strategy management||Strategy for the coast||Aims set for pilot||Aims set for pilot||Strategy for the coast||Strategy for the coast||Strategy for the coast|
|Maritime transport or port activities||Not mentioned||National dredging plan||Not mentioned||Not mentioned||Not mentioned||Not mentioned||Not mentioned||Not mentioned||Not mentioned||Not mentioned|
|Strategy on climate regulation, adaptation to storms and river discharges||Restoration, protection, oyster||Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM)||MDP risk by upstream developments||Need for adaptation to Climate Change (CC)||Flood safety with spatial plan||ICZM||ICZM||ICZM||ICZM||ICZM|
|Flood and coastal protection||Storm surge-based flood risk reduction||Application early warning system||Mekong Delta (MD) in top 5 deltas most affected by CC||-||Shoreface and beach nourishments||Sand motor Innovative concepts||System nourishment Innovative concepts||Shoreface and beach nourishments||Shoreface and beach nourishments||Shoreface and beach nourishments|
|Goal of urgency for action||Flood risk and hurricane disaster control||Safety of water production||Sustainability and safety||Coastal hazards for beaches||ICZM and innovation nourishments||Innovative and integrated solutions||Innovative and integrated solutions||ICZM and innovation nourishments||ICZM and innovation nourishments||ICZM and innovation nourishments|
|SDG Target||Goals and Targets from the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development |
|1.5||By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters.|
|3.9||By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination.|
|3.d||Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks.|
|6.3||By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally.|
|6.6||By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes.|
|7.2||By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix.|
|7.3||By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency.|
|8.2||Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors|
|8.4||Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production, with developed countries taking the lead.|
|8.9||By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products.|
|9.1||Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all.|
|9.4||By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities.|
|9.5||Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending.|
|11.3||By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries.|
|11.5||By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations.|
|11.6||By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management.|
|11.a||Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning.|
|11.b||By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels.|
|12.2||By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources.|
|12.7||Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities.|
|12.8||By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature.|
|12.b||Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products.|
|12.c||Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities.|
|13.1||Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries.|
|13.2||Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning.|
|13.3||Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning.|
|13.b||Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities.|
|14.1||By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution.|
|14.2||By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans.|
|14.3||Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels.|
|14.4||By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics.|
|14.5||By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information.|
|14.7||By 2030, increase the economic benefits to small island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism.|
|14.a||Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries.|
|14.c||Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of “The future we want”|
|15.8||By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species.|
|16.7||Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels.|
|17.17||Encourage and promote effective public, public–private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships.|
|Selected SDG Targets||Short Description||(A) Availability||(B) Relevancy||(C) Specificity||(D) Accuracy||Selected/|
|Motivation of Synergy|
|1.5||Disaster resilience||→ B||→ C||■||Not selected||Covered in 11.5|
|3.9||Pollutions and contamination||→ B||→ D||□||Not selected|
|3.d||Early warning & risk reduction||→ B||→ D||□||Not selected|
|6.3||Water pollution||→ B||→ C||→ D||■||Not selected||Covered in 6.6|
|6.6||Water quantity and quality||→ B||→ C||■||Selected|
|7.2||Renewable energy||→ B||→ C||■||Selected|
|7.3||Energy efficiency||→ B||→ D||→ D||□||Not selected|
|8.2||Economic productivity||→ B||→ C||→ D||■||Selected||double- SDG|
|8.4||Resource efficiency||→ D||□||Not selected|
|8.9||Sustainable tourism||→ D||■||Selected||double- SDG|
|9.1||Resilient infrastructure||→ B||→ D||□||Not selected|
|9.4||CO2 emission reduction||→ B||→ C||→ D||■||Selected||double- SDG|
|9.5||Knowledge and innovation||→ B||→ D||■||Selected||double- SDG|
|11.3||Inclusive urbanization||→ D||□||Not selected|
|11.5||Disaster risk reduction||→ D||■||Selected||double- SDG|
|11.6||Air quality||→ B||→ C||■||Selected||double- SDG|
|11.a||Development planning||→ D||□||Not selected|
|11.b||Holistic disaster risk management||→ B||→ C||→ D||■||Not selected||covered in 11.5|
|12.2||Natural resources||→ D||□||Not selected|
|12.7||Sustainable procurement||→ D||□||Not selected|
|12.8||Flood awareness||→ D||■||Selected|
|12.b||Monitor sustainable development||→ D||□||Not selected|
|12.c||Phasing out harmful subsidies||→ D||□||Not selected|
|13.1||Resilience and adaptive capacity||→ B||→ D||■||Not selected||covered in 11.5|
|13.2||Coastal erosion or accretion||→ B||→ D||■||Selected|
|13.3||Improve climate education||→ B||→ D||■||Not selected||covered in 12.8|
|13.b||Effective planning||→ D||■||Not selected||covered in 12.8|
|14.1||Marine pollution||→ D||■||Not selected||covered in 6.6|
|14.2||Biodiversity abundance||→ D||■||Selected|
|14.3||Ocean acidification||→ D||□||Not selected|
|14.4||Sustainable fishing||→ B||→ D||□||Not selected|
|14.5||Coastal-marine conservation||→ B||→ D||■||Not selected||covered in 14.2|
|14.7||Small island developing||→ D||□||Not selected|
|14.a||Marine technology||→ D||□||Not selected|
|14.c||Ocean conservation||→ D||□||Not selected|
|15.8||Prevention of invasive alien species||→ D||□||Not selected|
|16.7||Institutional capacity||→ D||■||Selected|
|17.17||Public–private partnerships||→ D||□||Not selected|
|Short Description||KPI||SDG Target||Unit||Reference||CLG||CCC||CVM||CQP||CNN|
|Water quantity and quality||Actual renewable water resources per capita||6.6||%||||75||61||42||81||45|
|Renewable energy||Renewable electricity share of total electricity output (%)||7.2||%||||13.2||68.2||36.7||13.6||12.4|
|Disaster risk reduction||Sendai Index||11.5||Number of deaths/missing persons affected by hydrological disasters per 100,000 inhabitants of coastal area||||7.90||787.2||5151.5||6.7 (2016)||0.0|
|Governance Effectiveness Index||16.7||%||||91||54||53||92||97|
|Coastal erosion or accretion||Average erosion or accretion rate||13.2||Average change rate in m/year||||−1.58||−0.52||−1.71||0.04||1.12|
|Biodiversity abundance||Ocean Health Index||14.2||%||||84.2||80.1||83.3||94.0||90.5|
|Economic productivity||Annual growth rate of real GDP per employed person||8.2||%||||66.8||80.4||74.0||95.6||66.8|
|Sustainable tourism||World Economic Forum||8.9||%||||41.4||17.50||26.5||60.1||60.8|
|CO2 emission reduction||Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per capita; estimates||9.4||1000 tons CO2/CAP km2 coast||||16.5||1.7||1.8||15.4||9.9|
|Knowledge and innovation||Global Competitiveness Index||9.5||%||||5.9||4.3||4.4||5.2||5.7|
|Flood awareness||Public awareness||12.8||%||||21||22||17||24||26|
|Short Description||KPI||SDG Target||Unit||Reference||CNH||CNA||CNC||CNZ||CNT|
|Water quantity and quality||Eutrophication||6.6||NO3 and NO2 (mg/l)||||0.75 (1981)||0.17|
|Renewable energy||Renewable electricity share of total electricity output (%)||7.2||%||||ND||ND||ND||ND||ND|
|Disaster risk reduction||Sendai Index||11.5||Number of deaths/missing persons affected by hydrological disasters||||0||0||0||0||0|
|Air quality||Air pollution/|
|11.6||kg DB eq./m3||||4.01||4.21||4.14||5.22||3.98|
|Institutional capacity||Participation ladder||16.7||Index||||3||3||3||3||3|
|Coastal erosion or accretion||Average erosion or accretion per nourishment||13.2||Average change rate in m/year||||−36||0||10||−6||−2|
|Biodiversity abundance||Impact of disrupted seabed m3||14.2||m2/m3||||0.7||0.7||12.2||14.5||5.9|
|Economic productivity||Annual growth job market due project in Euro/m3||8.2||Euro/m3||||ND||0.28||0.60||ND||1.20|
|Sustainable tourism||Amount of Extra dry beach surface per m3||8.9||m2/m3||||0.07||0.00||0.08||0.16||0.22|
|CO2 emission reduction||Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per nourishment||9.4||kg CO2 eq/m3 nourishment||||11.0||11.6||11.4||14.4||10.9|
|Knowledge and innovation||Citation of peer publications in SCOPUS||9.5||number of citations||||284||5||0||0||0|
|Flood awareness||Flood and water awareness based||12.8||HF (%)||||2.15||2.23||1.99||2.39||2.26|
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|Adaptation Measure||Description of (Eco)System Functionalities||Relevance to Climate Change||Reference|
|Nature Based Solution flood protection||Ecosystems such as salt marshes, mangroves, and vegetated fore shores may attenuate waves||As a result, it contributes to flood protection and reduces climate’s impact on coastal erosion||[10,27,32,34]|
|Beach-, foreshore nourishment||Morphology of a natural coastal ecosystem is in balance; interventions may interrupt this balance||Nourishment will have a positive shoreline contribution to climate regulation||[23,24,33]|
|Coastal wetland restoration||When the functioning of the ecosystem is under pressure, a potential added value could be obtained||Creating favorable habitat circumstances for fisheries or restoration of disturbed areas|||
|Shoreline stabilization||Technical infrastructures to protect coastal zone from erosion (e.g., seawalls)||Traditional solution against flooding||[37,38,39]|
|Disaster risk reduction management||Assessing and reducing flood risk||Proactive planning and capacity building for extreme events||[9,27,40,41,42]|
|Integrated coastal management||Monitoring and evaluation of both the sustainability and performance of coastal management||Process defines goals and actions||[25,43,44]|
|Coastal, estuary, and riverine resource management||Assessing ecosystem changes that makes sustainability more feasible||Assessment of sea-level rise impacts|||
|Marine protected area management and conservation agreement||Precautionary approach for area of critical concern||Series of measures improves the marine protected areas’ resilience to climate change||[45,46]|
|Policy strategy||Coastal and delta strategy||Disaster risk reduction strategy||Coastal strategy||Coastal erosion and riverbank||Island states||Global national strategy||Coastal strategy||Integrated assessment of national strategy||Coastal and delta strategy|
|Geographical area||Bangladesh||-||EU coastal states||Bangladesh||Small Island Developing States||-||-||Ivory Coast||Bangladesh|
Delta Dynamic Integrated Emulator Model
Inter-Agency and Expert Group-Sustainable Development Goals
Integrated-Sustainable Development Goal
|Assessment Overview||Assessment Overview||Treshold21-iSDG||(IAM)|
Integrated Assessment Model
|Type of assessment||Qualitative||Quantitative||Qualitative||Semi-quantitative||Quantitative||Semi-quantitative||Qualitative||Qualitative||Quantitative|
|SDG 1||1||1.5.1; 1.5.2; 1.5.3||-||-||-||1||-||1||1|
|SDG 11||-||11.b.1; 11.b.2||-||-||-||11||-||11||-|
|SDG 13||13||13.1.1; 13.1.2; 13.1.3||-||-||-||13||-||13||-|
|SDG 14||14||-||14.1; 14.2; 14.3; 14.4; 14.5; 14.6; 14.7; 14.a; 14.b; 14.c||-||14.1; 14.4; 14.5; 14.7||14||14.2; 14.5||14||14|
|Geographical Location||Coastal Types||Flood Protection Type||Nourishment Type/Size (m3)||Reference|
|Coastline cases (set 1)|
|Mississippi delta of Louisiana USA; Gulf of Mexico (CLG)||Wetlands, salt marches, mangroves||Nature-based flood protection; Sediment carried by the river floods||None||[73,74]|
|Caribbean delta of Colombia; Caribbean Sea & Pacific Ocean (CCC)||Hard structures; Rocks or cliffs fronted by sandy beaches and break walls||Shoreline stabilization; Rocks or cliffs fronted sediment supplied by erosion||None|||
|Coast of Queensland, Australia; South Pacific Ocean (CQP)||Hard structures and coral and mangroves, and sandy beaches with dune landscapes||Nature-based flood protection; Barrier reef and mangrove forests||None||[76,77]|
|Mekong delta of Vietnam; East Sea (CVM)||Hard structures and nature- based mangrove wetland, salt marches structure; Tidal Delta||Nature-based flood protection; Sedimentation and mangroves||None||[78,79]|
|North Sea delta of The Netherlands; North Sea (CNN)||Sandy coastline with urban agglomeration||beach, foreshore nourishment||Yearly 12,000,000|||
|Sand nourishment cases (set 2)|
|The Netherlands; North Sea; Domburg (CNZ)||Sandy coastline||Beach nourishment||350,000|||
|The Netherlands; North Sea; Texel (CNT)||Sandy coastline||Beach nourishment||1,150,000|||
|The Netherlands; North Sea; Callantsoog (CNC)||Sandy coastline||Shoreface nourishments and beach nourishment||1,000,000 and 400,000|||
|The Netherlands; North Sea; Delfland Sand Motor Pilot (CNH)||Sandy coastline||Mega nourishment||19,200,000|||
|The Netherlands; North Sea; Ameland Inlet Pilot (CNA)||Sandy coastline||Inlet system nourishment||5,000,000|||
|Coastal Functionalities/System Features||CLG||CCC||CVM||CQP||CNN *|
|A. Serving coastal ecosystems to reduce flood frequency||▲||▲||▲||▲||▲|
|B. Serving socioeconomic inclusive growth||▲||▲||▲||▲||▲|
|C. Valuating biodiversity and ecosystem||▲||▲||▲||▲||▲|
|D. Regulating emission reduction||▽||▽||▽||▽||▲|
|E. Controlling coastal flooding and erosion reduction||▲||▲||▲||▲||▲|
|F. Serving wellbeing of humans||▲||▲||▲||▽||▽|
|3||3.9||Pollutions and contamination||0||0||0||2||0||2|
|3||3.d||Early warning & risk reduction||0||0||1||2||0||2|
|6.6 *||Water quantity and quality||0||2||0||2||1||2|
|8||8.2 *||Economic productivity||2||2||1||1||2||2|
|8.9 *||Sustainable tourism||2||2||1||1||1||2|
|9.4 *||CO2 emission reduction||2||2||0||0||2||2|
|9.5 *||Knowledge and innovation||0||0||1||2||0||2|
|11.5 *||Disaster risk reduction||0||2||2||0||0||1|
|11.6 *||Air quality||1||2||1||1||1||2|
|11.b||Holistic disaster risk management||0||2||2||1||0||2|
|12.8 *||Flood awareness||2||1||2||2||2||1|
|12.b||Monitor sustainable development||1||1||1||2||2||2|
|12.c||Phasing out harmful subsidies||2||2||2||2||2||2|
|13||13.1||Resilience and adaptive capacity||0||1||2||2||0||2|
|13.2 *||Coastal erosion/accretion||2||2||2||1||2||2|
|13.3||Improve climate education||0||1||2||2||0||1|
|14||14.1||Reduce marine pollution||1||0||2||0||0||1|
|14.2 *||Biodiversity abundance||0||2||2||0||0||1|
|14.5||Coastal marine conservation||0||0||2||0||0||2|
|14.7||Small island developing||0||2||0||0||1||2|
|15||15.8||Prevention of invasive alien species||0||0||0||2||0||2|
|16||16.7 *||Institutional capacity||0||0||0||2||0||2|
|SDG Target||Short |
|Coastline SDG-KPI Data Availability||Sand Nourishment SDG-KPI Data Availability|
|6.6||Water quantity and quality||Protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including coast, wetlands, rivers, aquifers, and lakes; it brings risks related to water quality based on nutrient pollution by eutrophication ||Contribute to concentration NO3 pollution with impact on eutrophication (Conc. NO3 and NO2 in mg/L) |
|7.2||Renewable energy||Contribute by the energy transition to a less carbon-intensive system, accompanied by cost reductions ||No accurate and relevant open source data available from official international associations.|
|8.2||Economic productivity||Shows jobs in the higher economic level of productivity by incline of growth rate of real GDP per employed person ||The budget per nourishment is standardized on the total amount spent on personnel divided by the total volume of the nourishment |
|8.9||Sustainable tourism||Contributes to coastal tourism and has no negative impact on the degree of tourism and recreation ||Confirms the relation between beach size and number of visitors. To parameterize the index for the nourishment, the average extra beach width is multiplied by the length of the nourishment and then standardized over the different cases, divided by the total nourishment volume, and the extra (dry) beach surface area is the result |
|9.4||CO2 emission reduction||Considers coastal intervention when CO2 emission is limited by increased resource-use efficiency and adoption of clean, environmentally friendly technologies ||With the NBS analysis, CO2 is expressed as kg CO2 equivalent per cubic meter of sand nourishment, calculated through DuboCalc |
|9.5||Knowledge and innovation||Contribute by SDG indicator Global Competitiveness Index World Economic Forum ||With NBS analysis, it relates the number of scientific articles published on the different nourishments as the total number of times that these peer-reviewed publications in turn are cited in SCOPUS |
|11.5||Disaster risk reduction||Contributes to the vulnerability to climate-related extreme events which have effect on the directly affected persons attributed to disasters ||Contributes to the vulnerability to climate-related extreme events which have effect on the directly affected persons attributed to disasters |
|11.6||Air quality||Link to resilience and sustainably reduces the environmental impacts in consideration of the population exposure to air pollution of PM2, PM10, or 1.4-DB-eq./m3 ||The toxic emission profile (kg 1,4-DB equivalent) is calculated with DuboCalc based on fuel consumption), during the whole lifecycle |
|12.8||Flood awareness||Hyogo Framework implement the global disaster risk reduction framework ||Water awareness expressed as public monitoring program |
|13.2||Coastal erosion or accretion||Relate to coastal erosion, indicated as distribution as of sandy shorelines change rate as m/yr average based on Google Earth Engine (GEE) analyses ||Sand nourishment erosion change rate is based on MorphAn modeling to calculate the reduced meters of land loss or average erosion rate on location of the nourishment |
|14.2||Biodiversity abundance||Considers biodiversity both in short and long term for Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) when does not harm habitats and species based on Ocean Health Index ||Effect of the nourishments on the sand source locations have been analyzed based on disrupted sea floor habitat. The designated source locations for sand nourishments are past the depth of −20 m NAP, the value of a m2 seabed on the source locations is set equal for the sand nourishments. As a result, the surface area of the source location is chosen and divided by the total volume of the nourishment as a standardization |
|16.7||Institutional capacity||Focus on sustainability when it is implemented, managed, and maintained in a society with a positive and high human and institutional capacity, based on Government Effectiveness Index ||Public–private–citizen participation is used and expressed as a tool named the “participation ladder” |
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Schipper, C.A.; Dekker, G.G.J.; de Visser, B.; Bolman, B.; Lodder, Q. Characterization of SDGs towards Coastal Management: Sustainability Performance and Cross-Linking Consequences. Sustainability 2021, 13, 1560. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031560
Schipper CA, Dekker GGJ, de Visser B, Bolman B, Lodder Q. Characterization of SDGs towards Coastal Management: Sustainability Performance and Cross-Linking Consequences. Sustainability. 2021; 13(3):1560. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031560Chicago/Turabian Style
Schipper, Cor A., Gerben G.J. Dekker, Beer de Visser, Bas Bolman, and Quirijn Lodder. 2021. "Characterization of SDGs towards Coastal Management: Sustainability Performance and Cross-Linking Consequences" Sustainability 13, no. 3: 1560. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031560