Environmental Impact Assessment of Renovated Multi-Apartment Building Using LCA Approach: Case Study from Lithuania
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Life Cycle Assessment
- Goal and scope of the study defines the purpose and sets a boundary for the assessment;
- Life-cycle inventory (LCI) is the data collection to achieve the intended goal of the study. The process involves accounting of various input-output data related to the analysis/service which helps carry out impact assessment;
- Life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) contains category definition, classification, characterization, and weighing as main elements with different set of procedures;
- Life-cycle interpretation is to examine the results to determine the conclusions that can be made based on the inventory results that are consistent to the goal and scope of the study.
2.2. Research Object
2.2.1. Goal and Scope
- the main building (new) materials used during the renovation of the building
- processes and energy consumption required to produce newly added construction materials during renovation
- thermal energy consumption for the heating of building premises and hot water preparation during the life cycle of the building, i.e., average heat energy consumption for 40 years
- disposal of the (old) construction materials replaced during the process of renovation (end of stage).
2.2.2. Life Cycle Inventory
2.2.3. Life Cycle Impact Analysis
- The classical impact assessment method, CML 2000 methodology is used to access and quantify the potential indicator that falls in the midpoint categories such as global warming, ozone layer depletion
- Damage related methods, such as ReCiPe, Eco indicator 99, etc., help to model the cause-effect relationship of damage and quantify the endpoint.
2.3. Energy Consumption
3.1. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment
3.1.1. Impacts by Materials
3.1.2. Impacts by Buildings
- a non-renovated multi-apartment building
- a renovated multi-apartment (Building A)
- a modernized multi-apartment building equipped with renewable energy sources (Building B)
- about 1.14 times greater than a non-renovated building (i.e., insulation of the building’s facade walls, the ground part of the plinth, the roof and the windows);
- about 2 times higher than the environmental impact of a renovated building where renewable energy measures (Building B) used.
3.1.3. Impacts by Indicator (Single Score)
3.2. Heating Energy Consumption
4. Discussion and Conclusions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Total Area of the Facade Walls of a House||3658.87 m2|
|Area of the ground plinth||174.36 m2|
|Area of the roof covered with bitumen roll||742.90 m2|
|Total area of the multi-storey house window and balcony doors||112 m2|
|Estimation of Building materials—Before Renovation|
|Bitumen adhesive compound||1114.35||kg|
|Glass (density 2580 kg/m3)||4||m2|
|Cement cast plaster flooring||4970||kg|
|Estimation of New Materials—Added During Renovation|
|Window frame (PVC)||112||m2|
|Thermal plaster (outdoor)||20,058.3||kg|
|Glass fiber reinforced plastic, polyester resin||38,528||kg|
|Heat distribution equipment||1||p|
|Heavy fuel oil||38,528||kg|
|Transportation of materials to construction site via road (truck or carrier)||20||km|
|Energy for construction||113.189||MJ|
|Use Stage—Before Renovation|
|Natural Gas consumption (cooking)||19.9||kwh/m2|
|Heat energy consumption for SH and HW preparation||590||Mwh|
|Use Stage—After Renovation|
|Water Consumption monthly||1750||m3|
|Natural Gas consumption (cooking)||19.9||kwh/m2|
|Heat energy consumption for SH and HW preparation||352.47||Mwh|
|Heat energy consumption for SH and HW preparation (without solar panels)||444.42||Mwh|
|Discarded Materials (End of life)|
|Steel and other (non) metals||80||ton|
|Transportation output of building = 30 km to disposal site after 40 years of lifespan|
|Disposal Scenario: Landfill = 20%, Disposal = 20%, Reuse = 60%|
80% of the building materials will be recycled and the remaining will be incinerated
|Environmental Impact Category||Compartment||Indicator Reference Unit||Damage Category||Method|
|Global Warming Potential (GWP)||Stratosphere||kgCO2 eq.||Climate Change||IPCC|
|Photochemical Oxidation (PCOP)||Air and land||kgC2H2 eq.||Human Health, Ecosystem Quality||CML|
|Acidification (AP)||Land and water||kgSO2 eq.||Ecosystem Quality||CML|
|Eutrophication (EP)||Land and water||kgPO4 3- eq.||Ecosystem Quality||CML|
|Human Toxicity (HT)||Ground level||kg1,4-DB eq.||Human Health||IMPACT 2002+|
|Fossil Depletion (ABP)||Land||MJ or kg crude oil-eq.||Resources||Cumulative Energy Demand|
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Chandrasekaran, V.; Dvarioniene, J.; Vitkute, A.; Gecevicius, G. Environmental Impact Assessment of Renovated Multi-Apartment Building Using LCA Approach: Case Study from Lithuania. Sustainability 2021, 13, 1542. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031542
Chandrasekaran V, Dvarioniene J, Vitkute A, Gecevicius G. Environmental Impact Assessment of Renovated Multi-Apartment Building Using LCA Approach: Case Study from Lithuania. Sustainability. 2021; 13(3):1542. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031542Chicago/Turabian Style
Chandrasekaran, Vidhyalakshmi, Jolanta Dvarioniene, Ausrine Vitkute, and Giedrius Gecevicius. 2021. "Environmental Impact Assessment of Renovated Multi-Apartment Building Using LCA Approach: Case Study from Lithuania" Sustainability 13, no. 3: 1542. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031542