Barriers and Enablers to Buying Biodegradable and Compostable Plastic Packaging
2.2. Participants and Recruitment
2.5. Data Analysis
- Familiarisation with the data. This involved reading all survey responses and noting any recurring patterns.
- Generation of initial codes to indicate themes. As responses were assigned codes, a coding framework detailing code labels and definitions was developed and revised iteratively to help guide subsequent coding.
- Search for themes. This involved organising codes into a tentative set of candidate themes.
- Review of themes. This step involved a back-and-forth process of revisiting the raw survey responses and coding framework in order to update the names, descriptions, and definitions of candidate themes.
- Mapping of emergent themes onto COM-B categories of barriers and enablers. A theme qualified as a barrier if it deterred the purchasing of BCPP, as an enabler if it promoted it, and as mixed if it could do both. Theme labels and their categorisation into COM-B components was reviewed by a co-investigator (FL), upon which the appropriate revisions were made.
- Assignation of names and definitions for themes. This involved finalising the name, definition, description, and example quotes for each theme. The coding framework in Appendix B shows each theme’s names, definitions, descriptions, and example quotes grouped according to those who said they were more likely, unlikely, or unsure whether they would buy BCPP.
- Production of the report. This involved writing up the analysis with feedback from co-investigators.
2.6. Interpretation of the Results
3.1.1. Psychological Capability
3.1.2. Physical Opportunity
3.1.3. Social Opportunity
3.1.4. Reflective Motivation
3.2.1. Psychological Capability
3.2.2. Physical Opportunity
3.2.3. Social Opportunity
3.2.4. Automatic Motivation
3.2.5. Reflective Motivation
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|BCPP||biodegradable and compostable plastic packaging|
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|Answer||Frequency (Total = 5176)||Percentage (%)|
|I don’t know||403||7.8|
|COM-B Domain.||Theme (n = 16)||No. (Max n = 112)||Barrier/Enabler||Example Quote(s)|
|Psych. Cap.||1. Understanding terminology/labels||61||Barrier||“I am not sure what these terms really mean.” ID 17551 |
“These terms are confusing and can misleading.” ID 13113
|2. Awareness of plastic waste problem||4||Enabler||“I am aware of the crisis with plastic around the world…” ID 21563|
|3. Attention to product packaging and labelling||55||Barrier||“I don’t always notice the compostable/biodegradable signs amongst other text, images, and symbols on packaging.” ID 18872|
“Don’t read labels when shopping.” ID 21986
“Partly forget to check. Only look at the packaging when I come to put it in the bin.” ID 15122
|4. Packaging preferences||71||Barrier||“I would prefer to buy products in reusable or recyclable packaging, I believe this is more resource efficient.” ID 14967|
|5. Other product qualities take precedence||71||Barrier||“The item is more important than the packaging.” ID 19231|
“We buy the products we like, without looking at the packaging.” ID 18664
“There are too many considerations when buying products. A clothes item with biodegradable packaging might be manufactured in a less sustainable way or using a poorly looked-after/paid workforce, or just be significantly more expensive. It’s impossible to be sure of the best ethical choice within a given budget. Even professional advice can vary: e.g., is it better to recycle paper or send it to energy from waste plant, and indeed are there sufficient processing facilities for either?” ID 17816
|Phys. Opp.||6. Access to BCPP waste management||64||Both||“I have a compost heap therefore I can dispose of the material safely instead of it going to landfill.” ID 21421|
“Our authority does not accept food waste for recycling, and it is inconvenient put packaging in the green bin as all other green bin content comes from the garden.” ID 13262
|7. Aspects of the shopping environment||14||Barrier||“Most of our household shopping is done online and we can’t tell what the packaging is.” ID 18153|
“No time to check all these while shopping.” ID 21857
|8. Availability of BCPP||27||Both||“Comes from work and church as [they’re] already using.” ID 21783|
“Not always on offer as a choice.” ID 14709
|Soc. Opp.||9. Social norms||3||Both||“It is much more acceptable.” ID 21451|
“But also have a flat so only access to a shared compost heap, and neighbours have complained in the past when I’ve put compostable plastic in, as it just looks like the wrong thing has been put in. When I explained, they still complained that it takes too long to compost.” ID 15122
|Aut. Mot.||10. Environmental concerns||20||Enabler||“I am concerned about the environmental impact and climate change.” ID 21453|
|Ref. Mot.||11. Beliefs about environmental impact of BCPP||112||Both||“Perceived lower environmental impact. Spend less time in the ground before breaking down.” ID 21832|
“The fuss about single use plastic is massively over hyped. The total amount of plastic used for this is, in relative term[s], miniscule…” ID 12080
“There is still an impact in producing the packaging (land use/carbon emissions etc.), whether it is biodegradable or not.” ID 14269
“Not convinced they are better.” ID 18432
|12. Resolve to behave pro-environmentally||74||Enabler||“I’m always looking for ways to minimise my footprint.” ID 21956|
“I object to non-compostable throw-away plastic.” ID 21440
“The companies that are going to the bother of using biodegradable wrapping should be supported.” ID 21329
“…knowing that I can reduce the amount of waste going to landfill or even to a recycling stream means a lot.” ID 21650
|13. Hope that BCPP will be beneficial||9||Enabler||“In the hope they will deteriorate quicker and completely, unlike much plastic packaging.” ID 21725|
|14. Skepticism over decomposition claims||112||Barrier||“I would buy if the compostability was deliverable—not just greenwashing as it is at present.” ID 21167|
“Having put ‘biodegradable’ stuff in my compost bins in the past they don’t seem to break down very effectively.” ID 18820
|15. No intention to buy BCPP||33||Barrier||“I try to buy products with absolutely minimal packaging or better none at all.” ID 18164|
“I would be unlikely to purchase them and remain with taking my own bags to fill with my fruit and veg and re-useable coffee cup.” ID 14267
“Because I can’t be bothered to read every bit of packaging.” ID 12288
|16. Beliefs about capability||4||Barrier||“All manufacturers should be using these types of packaging. It should not be the consumer who has to check.” ID 18714|
“I’m not the primary purch[aser].” ID 18381
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Allison, A.L.; Lorencatto, F.; Michie, S.; Miodownik, M. Barriers and Enablers to Buying Biodegradable and Compostable Plastic Packaging. Sustainability 2021, 13, 1463. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031463
Allison AL, Lorencatto F, Michie S, Miodownik M. Barriers and Enablers to Buying Biodegradable and Compostable Plastic Packaging. Sustainability. 2021; 13(3):1463. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031463Chicago/Turabian Style
Allison, Ayşe Lisa, Fabiana Lorencatto, Susan Michie, and Mark Miodownik. 2021. "Barriers and Enablers to Buying Biodegradable and Compostable Plastic Packaging" Sustainability 13, no. 3: 1463. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031463