Next Article in Journal
Effects of the Use of CDIO Engineering Design in a Flipped Programming Course on Flow Experience, Cognitive Load
Next Article in Special Issue
Restore or Get Restored: The Effect of Control on Stress Reduction and Restoration in Virtual Nature Settings
Previous Article in Journal
A Regression Analysis of the Carbon Footprint of Megacities
Open AccessArticle

A Pragmatic Controlled Trial of Forest Bathing Compared with Compassionate Mind Training in the UK: Impacts on Self-Reported Wellbeing and Heart Rate Variability

1
College of Health, Psychology and Social Care, University of Derby, Derby DE22 1GB, UK
2
Lattice Coaching and Training, Chesterfield S41 9AT, UK
3
School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
4
Human Sciences Research Centre, University of Derby, Derby DE22 1GB, UK
5
The Forest Bathing Institute, London WC2H 9JQ, UK
6
Grow Outside CIC, Cambridge CB22 3GN, UK
7
Dominic Weil, Sheffield, S2 5AS, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dr. Takahide Kagawa
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1380; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031380
Received: 15 December 2020 / Revised: 20 January 2021 / Accepted: 22 January 2021 / Published: 28 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychological Benefits of Walking or Staying in Forest Areas)
Forest Bathing, where individuals use mindfulness to engage with nature, has been reported to increase heart rate variability and benefit wellbeing. To date, most Forest Bathing studies have been conducted in Asia. Accordingly, this paper reports the first pragmatic controlled trial of Forest Bathing in the United Kingdom, comparing Forest Bathing with a control comprising an established wellbeing intervention also known to increase heart rate variability called Compassionate Mind Training. Sixty-one university staff and students (50 females, 11 males) were allocated to (i) Forest Bathing, (ii) Compassionate Mind Training or (iii) Forest Bathing combined with Compassionate Mind Training. Wellbeing and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, post-intervention and three-months follow-up. There were improvements in positive emotions, mood disturbance, rumination, nature connection and compassion and 57% of participants showed an increase in heart rate variability. There were no significant differences between conditions, showing that Forest Bathing had equivalence with an established wellbeing intervention. The findings will help healthcare providers and policy makers to understand the effects of Forest Bathing and implement it as a feasible social prescription to improve wellbeing. Future research needs to involve clinical populations and to assess the effects of Forest Bathing in a fully powered randomised controlled trial. View Full-Text
Keywords: Compassionate Mind Training; Forest Bathing; heart rate variability; nature connection; positive emotion; social prescribing Compassionate Mind Training; Forest Bathing; heart rate variability; nature connection; positive emotion; social prescribing
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

McEwan, K.; Giles, D.; Clarke, F.J.; Kotera, Y.; Evans, G.; Terebenina, O.; Minou, L.; Teeling, C.; Basran, J.; Wood, W.; Weil, D. A Pragmatic Controlled Trial of Forest Bathing Compared with Compassionate Mind Training in the UK: Impacts on Self-Reported Wellbeing and Heart Rate Variability. Sustainability 2021, 13, 1380. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031380

AMA Style

McEwan K, Giles D, Clarke FJ, Kotera Y, Evans G, Terebenina O, Minou L, Teeling C, Basran J, Wood W, Weil D. A Pragmatic Controlled Trial of Forest Bathing Compared with Compassionate Mind Training in the UK: Impacts on Self-Reported Wellbeing and Heart Rate Variability. Sustainability. 2021; 13(3):1380. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031380

Chicago/Turabian Style

McEwan, Kirsten; Giles, David; Clarke, Fiona J.; Kotera, Yasu; Evans, Gary; Terebenina, Olga; Minou, Lina; Teeling, Claire; Basran, Jaskaran; Wood, Wendy; Weil, Dominic. 2021. "A Pragmatic Controlled Trial of Forest Bathing Compared with Compassionate Mind Training in the UK: Impacts on Self-Reported Wellbeing and Heart Rate Variability" Sustainability 13, no. 3: 1380. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031380

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop