The Risk of Dissolution of Sustainable Innovation Ecosystems in Times of Crisis: The Electric Vehicle during the COVID-19 Pandemic
3.1. Barriers to the Evolution of the EV Sustainable Innovation Ecosystem
3.2. The impact of COVID-19 on the EV Ecosystem
3.2.1. Working from Home
3.2.2. Private Transportation
3.2.3. Decreased Spending
3.2.4. Active Travel
3.2.5. Technology Adoption
3.2.6. Changing Mobility Patterns
3.2.7. Stimulus Spending by States
3.3. Long-Term Influence of the Crisis
3.3.1. The COVID-19 Pandemic as a Strategic Opportunity
3.3.2. Automotive Supply Chain Resilience to the COVID-19 Outbreak
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- D’Adamo, I.; Rosa, P. How Do You See Infrastructure? Green Energy to Provide Economic Growth after COVID-19. Sustainability 2020, 12, 4738. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- IEA. Global EV Outlook. Global Electric Car Stock, 2010–2019. 2020. Available online: https://www.iea.org/reports/global-ev-outlook-2020 (accessed on 20 November 2020).
- Adner, R.; Kapoor, R. Innovation ecosystems and the pace of substitution: Reexamining technology s-curves. Strateg. Manag. J. 2016, 37, 625–648. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Utterback, J.M. Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation; Harvard Business School Press: Boston, MA, USA, 1994. [Google Scholar]
- Harrop, P. Electric Vehicles Enter Phase of Fastest Growth. 2019. Available online: https://www.idtechex.com/fr/research-article/electric-vehicles-enter-phase-of-fastest-growth/17044 (accessed on 23 September 2020).
- Wollschlaeger, D.; Foden, M.; Cave, R.; Stent, M. Digital Disruption and the Future of the Automotive Industry. Automotive Revolution-Perspective Towards 2030; IBM Corp: Armonk, NY, USA, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Holweg, M. The evolution of competition in the automotive industry. In Build to Order; Springer: London, UK, 2008; pp. 13–34. [Google Scholar]
- Gerhard, D.; Brem, A.; Voigt, K.I. Product development in the automotive industry: Crucial success drivers for technological innovations. Int. J. Technol. Mark. 2008, 3, 203–222. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nagji, B.; Tuff, G. Managing Your Innovation Portfolio. Harv. Bus. Rev. 2012, 90, 66–73. [Google Scholar]
- Sodenkamp, M.A.; Wenig, J.; Thiesse, F.; Staake, T. Who can drive electric? Segmentation of car drivers based on longitudinal GPS travel data. Energy Policy 2019, 130, 111–129. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Iansiti, M.; Levien, R. Strategy as ecology. Harv. Bus. Rev. 2004, 82, 68–78. [Google Scholar]
- Adner, R.; Kapoor, R. Value creation in innovation ecosystems: How the structure of technological interdependence affects firm performance in new technology generations. Strateg. Manag. J. 2010, 31, 306–333. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Teece, D.J. Profiting from innovation in the digital economy: Enabling technologies, standards, and licensing models in the wireless world. Res. Policy 2018, 47, 1367–1387. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Priem, R.L. A consumer perspective on value creation. Acad. Manag. Rev. 2007, 32, 219–235. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Thomas, L.; Autio, E.; Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Business and Management. Innovation Ecosystems in Management: An Organizing Typology. 2020. Available online: https://oxfordre.com/business/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190224851.001.0001/acrefore-9780190224851-e-203 (accessed on 20 November 2020).
- Cennamo, C.; Santalo, J. Platform competition: Strategic trade-offs in platform markets. Strateg. Manag. J. 2013, 34, 1331–1350. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Accenture Strategy. The Transforming Mobility Land Scape. Industry Insights Mobility. 2020. Available online: https://www.accenture.com/us-en/insights/automotive/transforming-mobility-landscape (accessed on 25 November 2020).
- Kaitwade, N. COVID-19 shatters global automotive industry; sales of metal powder take a nosedive amid wavering demand. Met. Powder Rep. 2020. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Araz, O.M.; Choi, T.; Olson, D.; Salman, F. Data Analytics for Operational Risk Management. Decis. Sci. 2020, 51, 1316–1319. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nylund, P.A.; Brem, A.; Agarwal, N. Innovation ecosystems for meeting sustainable development goals: The evolving roles of multinational enterprises. J. Clean. Prod. 2021, 281, 125329. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Belhadi, A.; Kamble, S.; Jabbour, C.J.C.; Gunasekaran, A.; Ndubisi, N.O.; Venkatesh, M. Manufacturing and service supply chain resilience to the COVID-19 outbreak: Lessons learned from the automobile and airline industries. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change 2020, 163, 120447. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Arnold, M. Europe’s New COVID Outbreaks Raise Threat of Double-Dip Recession. Financial Times, 18 October 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Eurometal. Second COVID-19 Wave Could Delay Automotive Sector Recovery. Available online: https://eurometal.net/second-COVID-19-wave-could-delay-automotive-sector-recovery/ (accessed on 16 June 2020).
- Strauss, S.D. Some Emerging Hypotheses on the Economic Opportunities and Challenges of the Post-Pandemic World; Princeton University—Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs: Princeton, NJ, USA, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Brem, A.; Viardot, E.; Nylund, P.A. Implications of the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak for innovation: Which technologies will improve our lives? Technol. Forecast. Soc. Chang. 2021, 163, 120451. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Eisenhardt, K.M.; Graebner, M.E.; Sonenshein, S. Grand challenges and inductive methods: Rigor without rigor mortis. Acad. Manag. J. 2016, 59, 1113–1123. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Eisenhardt, K.M. Building theories from case study research. Acad. Manag. Rev. 1989, 14, 532–550. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yin, R.K. Case Study Research: Design and Methods; Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, 1994. [Google Scholar]
- Beltagui, A.; Rosli, A.; Candi, M. Exaptation in a digital innovation ecosystem: The disruptive impacts of 3D printing. Res. Policy 2020, 49, 103833. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gifford, E.; McKelvey, M.; Saemundsson, R. The evolution of knowledge-intensive innovation ecosystems: Co-evolving entrepreneurial activity and innovation policy in the West Swedish maritime system. Ind. Innov. 2020, 1–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wilken, D.; Oswald, M.; Draheim, P.; Pade, C.; Brand, U.; Vogt, T. Multidimensional assessment of passenger cars: Comparison of electric vehicles with internal combustion engine vehicles. Procedia CIRP 2020, 90, 291–296. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Donkers, A.J.; Yang, D.; Viktorović, M. Influence of driving style, infrastructure, weather and traffic on electric vehicle performance. Transp. Res. D-transp. Environ. 2020, 88, 102569. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Egede, P.; Dettmer, T.; Herrmann, C.; Kara, S. Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicles—A Framework to Consider Influencing Factors. Procedia CIRP 2015, 29, 233–238. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Adner, R. Ecosystem as structure: An actionable construct for strategy. J. Manag. 2017, 43, 39–58. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jacobides, M.G.; Cennamo, C.; Gawer, A. Towards a theory of ecosystems. Strateg. Manag. J. 2018, 39, 2255–2276. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Brem, A.; Nylund, P.A.; Schuster, G. Innovation and de facto standardization: The influence of dominant design on innovative performance, radical innovation, and process innovation. Technovation 2016, 50, 79–88. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ellingsen, L.; Hung, C.; Stromman, A.H. Identifying key assumptions and differences in life cycle assessment studies of lithium-ion traction batteries with focus on greenhouse gas emissions. Transp. Res. D-transp. Environ. 2017, 55, 82–90. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Peters, J.F.; Baumann, M.; Zimmermann, B.; Braun, J.; Weil, M. The environmental impact of Li-Ion batteries and the role of key parameters—A review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2017, 67, 491–506. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cox, B.; Mutel, C.; Bauer, C.; Beltrán, A.M.; Vuuren, D.V. Uncertain Environmental Footprint of Current and Future Battery Electric Vehicles. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2018, 52, 4989–4995. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Schmidt, T.; Beuse, M.; Zhang, X.; Steffen, B.; Schneider, S.; Pena-Bello, A.; Bauer, C.; Parra, D. Additional Emissions and Cost from Storing Electricity in Stationary Battery Systems. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2019, 53, 3379–3390. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Teece, D.J. Profiting from technological innovation: Implications for integration, collaboration, licensing. Res. Policy 1986, 15, 285–305. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Alexy, O.; George, G.; Salter, A. Cui Bono? The Selective Revealing of Knowledge and Its Implications for Innovative Activity. Acad. Manag. Rev. 2013, 38, 270–291. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kapoor, R.; Lee, J.M. Coordinating and competing in ecosystems: How organizational forms shape new technology investments. South. Med. J. 2013, 34, 274–296. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Leviäkangas, P.; Kinnunen, T.; Kess, P. The Electric Vehicles Ecosystem Model: Construct, Analysis and Identification of Key Challenges. Manag. Glob. Trans. 2014, 12, 253–277. [Google Scholar]
- Kim, S.; Lee, J.; Lee, C. Does driving range of electric vehicles influence electric vehicle adoption? Sustainability 2017, 9, 1783. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Gnann, T.; Funke, S.Á.; Jakobsson, N.; Plötz, P.; Sprei, F.; Bennehag, A. Fast charging infrastructure for electric vehicles: Today’s situation and future needs. Transp. Res. D-transp. Environ. 2018, 62, 314–329. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gibson, J.J. The Ecological Approach to Perception; Houghton Mifflin: London, UK, 1979. [Google Scholar]
- Birkinshaw, J.; Bouquet, C.; Barsoux, J.-L. The 5 Myths of Innovation. MIT Sloan Manag. Rev. 2011, 52, 43–50. [Google Scholar]
- Goffin, K.; Mitchell, R. Innovation Management, 3rd ed.; Red Globe Press: London, UK, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Faisal, A.; Yigitcanlar, T.; Kamruzzaman, M.; Paz, A. Mapping Two Decades of Autonomous Vehicle Research: A Systematic Scientometric Analysis. J. Urban Technol. 2020, 1–30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Conner-Simons, A. How Ride-Sharing Can Improve Traffic, Save Money, and Help the Environment. 2017. Available online: http://news.mit.edu/2016/how-ride-sharing-can-improve-traffic-save-money-and-help-environment-0104 (accessed on 5 October 2020).
- Kiron, D. How Next Gen Car Sharing Will Transform Transportation. MIT Sloan Manag. Rev. 2013, 54, 1. [Google Scholar]
- Thaler, R. Misbehaving: The Making of Behavioral Economics, 1st ed.; W.W. Norton and Company: New York, NY, USA, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Autio, E.; Thomas, L.W. Value co-creation in ecosystems: Insights and research promise from three disciplinary perspectives. In Handbook of Digital Innovation; Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham, UK, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Ferràs-Hernández, X.; Tarrats-Pons, E.; Arimany-Serrat, N. Disruption in the automotive industry: A Cambrian moment. Bus. Horiz. 2017, 60, 855–863. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sofi, S.A.; Mir, F.A.; Baba, M.M. Cognition and affect in consumer decision making: Conceptualization and validation of added constructs in modified instrument. Futur. Bus. J. 2020, 6, 1–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- McKinsey & Co. Moving Forward: How COVID-19 Will Affect Mobility in the United Kingdom. 2020. Available online: https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Industries/Automotive%20and%20Assembly/Our%20Insights/Moving%20forward%20How%20COVID%2019%20will%20affect%20mobility%20in%20the%20United%20Kingdom/Moving-forward-How-COVID-19-might-affect-mobility-in-the-United-Kingdom-vF.pdf (accessed on 24 November 2020).
- Abdullah, M.; Dias, C.; Muley, D.; Shahin, M. Exploring the impacts of COVID-19 on travel behaviour and mode preferences. Transp. Res. Interdiscip. Perspect. 2020, 8, 100255. [Google Scholar]
- Moslem, S.; Campisi, T.; Szmelter-Jarosz, A.; Duleba, S.; Nahiduzzaman, K.M.; Tesoriere, G. Best–worst method for modelling mobility choice after COVID-19: Evidence from Italy. Sustainability 2020, 12, 6824. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kirwan, J.; Motortrader.com. Used Car Prices Rise with Demand Exceeding Supply. Available online: https://www.motortrader.com/motor-trader-news/automotive-news/used-car-prices-rise-demand-exceeding-supply-18-09-2020 (accessed on 18 September 2020).
- Financial Times. UK Lockdown Measures Drive Used Car Prices to Record Growth. Available online: https://www.ft.com/content/6617dc19-6302-42b6-9c98-94faecb0dd8c (accessed on 2 October 2020).
- Oxford Business Group. Can the Automotive Industry Adapt to a COVID-19 World? Available online: https://oxfordbusinessgroup.com/news/can-automotive-industry-adapt-COVID-19-world (accessed on 30 June 2020).
- Budd, L.; Ison, S. Responsible Transport: A post-COVID agenda for transport policy and practice. Transp. Res. Interdiscip. Perspect. 2020, 6, 100151. [Google Scholar]
- Furcher, T.; Grühn, B.; Huber, I.; Tschiesner, A. COVID-19 Auto and Mobility Insights. 2020. Available online: https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/marketing-and-sales/our-insights/how-consumers-behavior-in-car-buying-and-mobility-changes-amid-COVID-19 (accessed on 2 November 2020).
- Sport England. Active Travel and Physical Activity Evidence Review. 2019. Available online: https://www.sportengland.org/know-your-audience/demographic-knowledge/active-travel?section=our_research (accessed on 12 October 2020).
- Greenpeace, Manifesto for a Green Recovery. 2020. Available online: https://www.greenpeace.org.uk/resources/green-recovery-manifesto/ (accessed on 4 June 2020).
- Corcoran, J.; Li, T.; Rohde, D.; Charles-Edwards, E.; Mateo-Babiano, D. Spatio-temporal patterns of a Public Bicycle Sharing Program: The effect of weather and calendar events. J. Transp. Geogr. 2014, 41, 292–305. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Goodman, A.; Aldred, R. Inequalities in utility and leisure cycling in England, and variation by local cycling prevalence. Transp. Res. 2018, 56, 381–391. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Reynolds, P.; Bosma, N.; Autio, E.; Hunt, S.; De Bono, N.; Servais, I.; Lopez-Garcia, P.; Chin, N. Global entrepreneurship monitor: Data collection design and implementation 1998–2003. Small Bus. Econ. 2005, 24, 205–231. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hausler, S.; Heineke, K.; Hensley, R.; Möller, T.; Schwedhelm, D.; Shen, P.; McKinsey. The Impact of COVID-19 on Future Mobility Solutions. 2020. Available online: https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Industries/Automotive%20and%20Assembly/Our%20Insights/The%20impact%20of%20COVID19%20on%20future%20mobility%20solutions/The-impact-of-COVID-19-on-future-mobility-solutions-vF.ashx (accessed on 3 December 2020).
- Brem, A.; Puente-Díaz, R. Are you acting sustainably in your daily practice? Introduction of the Four-S model of sustainability. J. Clean. Prod. 2020, 267, 122074. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sheth, J. Impact of COVID-19 on consumer behavior: Will the old habits return or die? J. Bus. Res. 2020, 117, 280–283. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Drake, T.M.; Docherty, A.B.; Weiser, T.G.; Yule, S.; Sheikh, A.; Harrison, E.M. The effects of physical distancing on population mobility during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. Lancet Digit. Health 2020, 2, 385–387. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Prentice, C.; Chen, J.; Stantic, B. Timed intervention in COVID-19 and panic buying. J. Retail. Consum. Serv. 2020, 57, 102203. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Eccles, L. COVID-Conscious Can Go Shopping without Leaving Their Own Car. The Sunday Times, 20 September 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Giones, F.; Brem, A.; Pollack, J.M.; Michaelis, T.L.; Klyver, K.; Brinckmann, J. Revising entrepreneurial action in response to exogenous shocks: Considering the COVID-19 pandemic. J. Bus. Ventur. Insights 2020, 14, e00186. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bloomberg. Germany’s Electric-Car Market Is Poised to Overtake California’s, William Wilkes. Available online: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-12-03/germany-s-electric-car-market-is-poised-to-overtake-california-s (accessed on 4 December 2020).
- Research and Markets. COVID-19 Growth Impact Assessment for the Automotive Industry. 2020. Available online: http://www.researchandmarkets.com (accessed on 3 December 2020).
- Hendry, L.; Stevenson, M.; MacBryde, J.; Ball, P.; Sayed, M.; Liu, L. Local food supply chain resilience to constitutional change: The Brexit effect. Int. J. Oper. Prod. Manag. 2019, 39, 429–453. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hosseini, S.; Ivanov, D. Resilience assessment of supply networks with the ripple effect considerations: A Bayesian network approach. Ann. Oper. Res. 2019, 278, 1–27. [Google Scholar]
- Graveline, N.; Grémont, M. Measuring and understanding the microeconomic resilience of businesses to lifeline service interruptions due to natural disasters. Int. J. Disaster Risk Reduct. 2017, 24, 526–538. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ivanov, D.; Dolgui, A.; Sokolov, B.; Ivanova, M. Literature review on disruption recovery in the supply chain *. Int. J. Prod. Res. 2017, 55, 6158–6174. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Crisil Research. Sector Report: Automotive Components. Available online: https://www.crisil.com/en/home/our-analysis/reports/2017/09/sector-report-automotive-components.html (accessed on 21 September 2020).
- Elleuch, H.; Dafaoui, E.M.; Elmhamedi, A.; Chabchoub, H. Resilience and Vulnerability in Supply Chain: Literature review. IFAC PapersOnLine 2016, 49, 1448–1453. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Scavarda, L.F.; Ceryno, P.S.; Pires, S.; Klingebiel, K. Supply chain resilience analysis: A brazilian automotive case. Rev. Adm. Empresas 2015, 55, 304–313. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Bevilacqua, M.; Ciarapica, F.E.; Marcucci, G. Supply Chain Resilience research trends: A literature overview. IFAC PapersOnLine 2019, 52, 2821–2826. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Paton, G.; The Times. Contactless Doors and Visors are the Future for Rail. Available online: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/coronavirus-contactlessdoors-and-visors-are-the-future-for-rail-qgsnd6p08 (accessed on 26 May 2020).
- Jefferson, M. A crude future? COVID-19s challenges for oil demand, supply and prices. Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 2020, 68, 101669. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Hanbury, M.; Business Insider. UK Grocery Chains Add Hundreds of Thousands of Delivery Slots for Online Orders but Admit that They Still Can’t Keep Up with Demand. Available online: https://www.businessinsider.com/tesco-ocado-sainsburys-cant-keep-up-with-surging-demand-amid-coronavirus-4?r=US&IR=T (accessed on 8 April 2020).
- Dattée, B.; Alexy, O.; Autio, E. Maneuvering in poor visibility: How firms play the ecosystem game when uncertainty is high. Acad. Manag. J. 2018, 61, 466–498. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Wurster, S.; Heß, P.; Nauruschat, M.; Jütting, M. Sustainable Circular Mobility: User-Integrated Innovation and Specifics of Electric Vehicle Owners. Sustainability 2020, 12, 7900. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lévay, P.Z.; Drossinos, Y.; Thiel, C. The effect of fiscal incentives on market penetration of electric vehicles: A pairwise comparison of total cost of ownership. Energy Policy 2017, 105, 524–533. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hardman, S. Understanding the impact of reoccurring and non-financial incentives on plug-in electric vehicle adoption—A review. Transp. Res. A-policy Pract. 2019, 119, 1–14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Nykvist, B.; Sprei, F.; Nilsson, M. Assessing the progress toward lower priced long range battery electric vehicles. Energy Policy 2019, 124, 144–155. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Weber, K.M.; Rohracher, H. Legitimizing research, technology and innovation policies for transformative change: Combining insights from innovation systems and multi-level perspective in a comprehensive ‘failures’ framework. Res. Policy 2012, 41, 1037–1047. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sierzchula, W.; Bakker, S.; Maat, K.; Van Wee, B. The influence of financial incentives and other socio-economic factors on electric vehicle adoption. Energy Policy 2014, 68, 183–194. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rietmann, N.; Lieven, T. How policy measures succeeded to promote electric mobility—Worldwide review and outlook. J. Clean. Prod. 2019, 206, 66–75. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tummers, L. Public Policy and Behavior Change. Public Adm. Rev. 2019, 79, 925–930. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zhang, X.; Bai, X.; Zhong, H. Electric vehicle adoption in license plate-controlled big cities: Evidence from Beijing. J. Clean. Prod. 2018, 202, 191–196. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Steg, L.; Vlek, C. Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: An integrative review and research agenda. J. Environ. Psychol. 2009, 29, 309–317. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Huang, X.; Ge, J. Electric vehicle development in Beijing: An analysis of consumer purchase intention. J. Clean. Prod. 2019, 216, 361–372. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hu, Y.; Wang, Z.; Li, X. Impact of policies on electric vehicle diffusion: An evolutionary game of small world network analysis. J. Clean. Prod. 2020, 265, 121703. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jochem, P.; Vilchez, J.J.; Ensslen, A.; Schäuble, J.; Fichtner, W. Methods for forecasting the market penetration of electric drivetrains in the passenger car market. Transp. Rev. 2018, 38, 322–348. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Government of India. Minutes of the Meeting of Committee for Finalization of Demand and Supply Side Incentives for Promotion of Electric Mobility Held on 22nd February 2018. 2018. Available online: https://dhi.nic.in/writereaddata/UploadFile/Demand%20Supply%20side%20Incentives636663000 191442326.pdf (accessed on 22 September 2020).
- Brückmann, G.; Bernauer, T. What drives public support for policies to enhance electric vehicle adoption. Environ. Res. Lett. 2020, 15, 094002. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Brem, A.; Nylund, P.; Viardot, E. The impact of the 2008 financial crisis on innovation: A dominant design perspective. J. Bus. Res. 2020, 110, 360–369. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gómez Vilchez, J.; Jochem, P.; Fichtner, W. Interlinking major markets to explore electric car uptake. Energy Policy 2020, 144, 111588. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Karmaker, A.K.; Hossain, M.; Manoj Kumar, N.; Jagadeesan, V.; Jayakumar, A.; Ray, B. Analysis of Using Biogas Resources for Electric Vehicle Charging in Bangladesh: A Techno-Economic-Environmental Perspective. Sustainability 2020, 12, 2579. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
|Trend||Impact on EV Evolution|
|Work from home||Decreased mobility and less need for vehicles|
|Private transportation||Increased need for private vehicle ecosystem|
|Decreased spending||EVs are considered too expensive|
|Active travel||Decreased need for vehicles|
|Technology adoption||Increasing inclination to adopt EVs|
|Changing mobility patterns||Uncertainty about future mobility needs|
|Stimulus spending by states||Higher adoption through lower purchase costs|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Arribas-Ibar, M.; Nylund, P.A.; Brem, A. The Risk of Dissolution of Sustainable Innovation Ecosystems in Times of Crisis: The Electric Vehicle during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Sustainability 2021, 13, 1319. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031319
Arribas-Ibar M, Nylund PA, Brem A. The Risk of Dissolution of Sustainable Innovation Ecosystems in Times of Crisis: The Electric Vehicle during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Sustainability. 2021; 13(3):1319. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031319Chicago/Turabian Style
Arribas-Ibar, Manel, Petra A. Nylund, and Alexander Brem. 2021. "The Risk of Dissolution of Sustainable Innovation Ecosystems in Times of Crisis: The Electric Vehicle during the COVID-19 Pandemic" Sustainability 13, no. 3: 1319. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031319