- RQ1: Which museum quality dimensions are identified following a ‘top-down’ approach for the analysis of online reviews?
- RQ2: Which museum quality dimensions are identified following a ‘bottom-up’ approach for the analysis of online reviews?
- RQ3: To what extent do the museum quality dimensions evaluated from online reviews using a ‘bottom-up’ approach differ from those identified through a ‘top-down’ approach?
2. Literature Review
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. The Empirical Context of Italian Museums
3.2. Data Collection
3.3. Online Reviews of Museums
3.4. Data Analytics Approaches to Online Reviews
3.4.1. ‘Top-Down’ Approach
3.4.2. ‘Bottom-Up’ Approach
3.4.3. Comparison of the ‘Top-Down’ and ‘Bottom-Up’ Approaches
4.1. RQ1: Which Museum Quality Dimensions Are Identified following a ‘Top-Down’ Approach for the Analysis of Online Reviews?
4.2. RQ2: Which Museum Quality Dimensions Are Identified following a ‘Bottom-Up’ Approach for the Analysis of Online Reviews?
- Museum Cultural Heritage (6 latent topics): With an average probability of 46%, the museum reviews address those aspects connected to the artistic collection of the museum, including comments on exhibitions, findings and artworks, but also considerations of the museums’ history and tradition and descriptions of the buildings, facades, churches and castles.
- Personal Experience (4 latent topics): With an average probability of 31%, museum reviews address the emotional aspects associated with their personal experiences. This includes comments connected to the ‘wow effect’ of the visit, praises for the majesty and beauty and suggestions to visit the heritage site at least once in a lifetime. Additional aspects addressed are connected to the descriptions of revisits to the museum and the associated expectations, but also events that occurred during the visit or in connection to the visit itself, such as the museum’s disorganisation in supporting visitors or lack of information or encounters with rude personnel.
- Museum Services (3 latent topics): With an average probability of 23%, the museum reviews address aspects connected to the services offered by museums, such as ticketing, guided tours, accessibility and transports.
4.3. RQ3: To What Extent Do the Museum Quality Dimensions Evaluated from Online Reviews Using a ‘Bottom-Up’ Approach Differ from Those Identified through a ‘Top-Down’ Approach?
From the Porta San Paolo railway station (from the Piramide metro stop), take the train to Ostia Antica, after a journey of about half an hour. In ancient times, it was the ancient port of Rome, and in it, the goods flowed and passed to and from the whole empire. The ruins are well preserved, and all the activities of the time are recognisable from them, from the storage warehouses to the bathrooms. public buildings, amphitheatres, fire stations and port corporations. I leave the rest to your curiosity. I bet you will be charmed.(30.7% probability of observing the latent topic Accessibility and Transports)
Nice initiative by the students of the Rodolico scientific high school. We were welcomed with kindness and cordiality by the students, appreciating their competence.(20.1% probability of observing latent topic Guided Tours)
Admission 9 euros per person and 4 euros for children seems a bit excessive to me .. to possibly add 1 euro for transport by bus because if you proceed on foot, the path to take is not at all simple and in good shape. Strollers are impossible!!!(19.2% probability of observing latent topic Ticketing (purchase, price, book))
5. Discussion and Conclusions
5.1. Academic Implications
5.2. Practitioner Implications
5.3. Limitations and Further Research
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Policy Maker’ Standards||‘Top-Down’ Quality Dimension||Set of Keywords|
|Perception of museum user/visitor towards reception services, i.e., friendliness and professionalism of the staff, hostesses, stewards, security guards, cleaners, ticket office, presence of queues, queues, crowds, waiting, flow management, route management, etc.|
Perception of museum user/visitor towards costs of basic and additional services, i.e., costs incurred/to be incurred
|Ticketing and Welcoming||Free, sliding, queue, free, ticket, throng, crowd, wait, entrance, steward, checkout, cost|
|Perception of museum user/visitor towards museum’s physical location|
Perception of museum user/visitor towards accessibility, e.g., lifts, platforms/slides for people with disabilities, transport to reach the place, parking lots
|Space||Restoration, dirt, external/externally, intern, enter, unkempt, access, imposing, out|
|Perception of museum user/visitor towards use of spaces, e.g., halls, exhibitions, set-ups, lighting, signage, aesthetics, exhibition, captions, tour itinerary, cleaning, indoor locations, outdoor locations||Comfort||Lighting, degraded, cured, held|
|Perception of museum user/visitor towards organised activities and events, e.g., exhibitions, shows, presentations, experiences, workshops, educational activities, events, etc.||Activities||Guided tour, show, event|
|Perception of museum user/visitor towards usability, usefulness, completeness and quality of the applications and content of websites and social accounts, i.e., clarity, completeness and exhaustiveness of the information on the institution available online by consulting the institutional websites and social media/network accounts; quality and usability of the applications available online for booking and purchasing tickets for visiting institutes/exhibitions and the like; website compatibility with mobile devices||Communication||Guide, videoguide, audioguide, package, audio, video, booking, indication, itineraries|
|‘Top-Down’ Quality Dimension||Accuracy|
|Ticketing and Welcoming||72%|
|‘Top-Down’ Approach||‘Bottom-Up’ Approach|
|Perspective||Policy Maker/Museum Manager||Reviewer/User/Visitor|
|Categorisation||Supervised (keyword-based)||Unsupervised (topic-based)|
|Results interpretation||Not required||Required|
|Representation||Non-overlapping multiclass classifier output||Topic-based probability distribution|
|‘Top-Down’ Quality Dimension||Short Description||Excerpt of Review Classified|
|Ticketing and Welcoming||Aspects related to surveillance, welcoming, fees and costs, such as ticketing, queueing and crowding||‘… Paid parking (a bit expensive), some difficulties with the car in the busiest moments since you arrive from the crowded promenade.’|
|Space||Aspects related to the physical characteristics of the museum, such as the location of the museum and its accessibility||‘… beautiful castle rich in history immersed in a wonderful park and overlooking the cliff a few kilometres from Trieste. The park is easily accessible, rich in vegetation...’|
|Comfort||Aspects related to the equipment of museums’ exhibitions, such as lighting, cleanliness or maintenance||‘... the rooms with well-kept furnishings, paintings, furnishings that are well preserved and repaired from tampering ...’|
|Activities||Aspects related to events organised by museums, such as guided tours and temporary exhibitions||‘... The advice is to book a guided tour of at least 4 h, as we did, and you will not regret it, as a shorter time is really small...’|
|Communication||Aspects related to information offered to the public onsite or through online channels, such as physical signposts and audio-guides||‘… even if a little lacking as indications, the most scenic part is the one in front of the castle with the small dock and the beautiful fountain in the centre of the square...’|
|Most Probable Words|
|Latent Topics Names||Excerpt of Review|
|Museum, exposition, floor, room, collection, church, century, fresco, building, structure, marvel, wonder, beauty, artwork, art, gallery, masterpiece, castle seen, inner, landscape, panorama suggest, external, garden, villa, park, palace, fountain||Artistic Collection,|
Exhibitions and Findings,
Castles and Views,
The Museum from Outside,
Museum’s History and Tradition
|‘Castle built around 1850–60 in a medieval style wanted by the then Habsburg Empire, more precisely at the behest of Maximilian of Habsburg Archduke of Austria...’ (probability of observing Museum Cultural Heritage in review: 64%)|
‘… The museum presents a great variety of works ranging from painting, sculpture and architecture. In addition, you can admire some of the most famous masterpieces of the art world such as... ‘ (probability of observing Museum Cultural Heritage in review: 59%)
‘... The temple was rebuilt in the form in which we can admire it today by the Emperor Hadrian (128 AD), under whose reign the Empire of Rome reached the height of its splendour...’ (probability of observing Museum Cultural Heritage in review: 69%)
|Visit, day, suggest, time, place, emotion, experience, see, years, remain, pity, just,|
Revisits and Expectations,
At least once!,
|‘... And every time, looking up at its internal vault, I am amazed at how a closed place can convey that sense of immense space and deep breath to me’ (probability of observing Personal Experience in review: 44%)|
‘I remembered seeing a marvel in a state of abandonment, this year I revisited it and I was amazed...’ (probability of observing Personal Experience in review: 41%)
‘… Reviewing the excavations is a great thrill every time, despite the poor signage and maps that are not always clear. However, the organisation turned out to be even worse... ‘ (probability of observing Personal Experience in review: 47%)
|See, guide, appreciate, organise, path,|
accompany, explain, tour, ticket, entry, euro, queue, reservation, cost, price, entry, site, park, reach, close, foot, walk, convenient, easy
Ticketing (purchase, price, book)
|‘... You can have free and privileged access to the cash desks... the site is easily accessible from Naples by bus...’ (probability of observing Museum Services in review: 46%)|
‘... Our guide was extremely engaging, able to actualise what we saw...’ (probability of observing Museum Services in review: 40%)
‘… Having arrived 1 h earlier, we got in line anyway! Once the tickets have been taken, we are told the entrance... ‘ (probability of observing Museum Services in review: 51%)
|‘Bottom-Up’ Quality Dimension||Min||Q1||Q2||Mean||Q3||Max|
|Museum Cultural Heritage||15.31%||41.83%||46.15%||46.12%||50.12%||83.54%|
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