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PEMFC Poly-Generation Systems: Developments, Merits, and Challenges

School of Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Telford TF2 9NT, UK
School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
Department of Sustainable and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah P.O. Box 27272, United Arab Emirates
Chemical Engineering Department, Minia University, Elminia 61519, Egypt
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Valeria Palomba
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 11696;
Received: 31 August 2021 / Revised: 18 October 2021 / Accepted: 20 October 2021 / Published: 22 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology)
Significant research efforts are directed towards finding new ways to reduce the cost, increase efficiency, and decrease the environmental impact of power-generation systems. The poly-generation concept is a promising strategy that enables the development of a sustainable power system. Over the past few years, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell-based Poly-Generation Systems (PEMFC-PGSs) have received accelerated developments due to the low-temperature operation, high efficiency, and low environmental impact. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the main PEMFC-PGSs, including Combined Heat and Power (CHP) co-generation systems, Combined Cooling and Power (CCP) co-generation systems, Combined Cooling, Heat, and Power (CCHP) tri-generation systems, and Combined Water and Power (CWP) co-generation systems. First, the main technologies used in PEMFC-PGSs, such as those related to hydrogen production, energy storage, and Waste Heat Recovery (WHR), etc., are detailed. Then, the research progresses on the economic, energy, and environmental performance of the different PEMFC-PGSs are presented. Also, the recent commercialization activities on these systems are highlighted focusing on the leading countries in this field. Furthermore, the remaining economic and technical obstacles of these systems along with the future research directions to mitigate them are discussed. The review reveals the potential of the PEMFC-PGS in securing a sustainable future of the power systems. However, many economic and technical issues, particularly those related to high cost and degradation rate, still need to be addressed before unlocking the full benefits of such systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: PEM; poly-generation; CHP; CCHP; heat recovery; fuel cells; sustainability PEM; poly-generation; CHP; CCHP; heat recovery; fuel cells; sustainability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Baroutaji, A.; Arjunan, A.; Robinson, J.; Wilberforce, T.; Abdelkareem, M.A.; Olabi, A.G. PEMFC Poly-Generation Systems: Developments, Merits, and Challenges. Sustainability 2021, 13, 11696.

AMA Style

Baroutaji A, Arjunan A, Robinson J, Wilberforce T, Abdelkareem MA, Olabi AG. PEMFC Poly-Generation Systems: Developments, Merits, and Challenges. Sustainability. 2021; 13(21):11696.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Baroutaji, Ahmad, Arun Arjunan, John Robinson, Tabbi Wilberforce, Mohammad A. Abdelkareem, and Abdul G. Olabi. 2021. "PEMFC Poly-Generation Systems: Developments, Merits, and Challenges" Sustainability 13, no. 21: 11696.

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