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More than Bike Lanes—A Multifactorial Index of Urban Bikeability

German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Transport Research, 12489 Berlin, Germany
Department of Geography, Humboldt University of Berlin, 10099 Berlin, Germany
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Feng Zhu, Wenbo Zhang, Yuntao Guo and Jian Wang
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 11584;
Received: 8 September 2021 / Revised: 8 October 2021 / Accepted: 18 October 2021 / Published: 20 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Sustainability and Resilience in Smart Cities)
The present study aims to deduce bikeability based on a collective understanding and provides a methodology to operationalize its calculation based on open data. The approach contains four steps building on each other and combines qualitative and quantitative methods. The first three steps include the definition and operationalization of the index. First, findings from the literature are condensed to determine relevant categories influencing bikeability. Second, an expert survey is conducted to estimate the importance of these categories to gain a common understanding of bikeability and merge the impacting factors. Third, the defined categories are calculated based on OpenStreetMap data and combined to a comprehensive spatial bikeability index in an automated workflow. The fourth step evaluates the proposed index using a multinomial logit mode choice model to derive the effects of bikeability on travel behavior. The expert process shows a stable interaction between the components defining bikeability, linking specific spatial characteristics of bikeability and associated components. Applied components are, in order of importance, biking facilities along main streets, street connectivity, the prevalence of neighborhood streets, green pathways and other cycle facilities, such as rental and repair facilities. The mode choice model shows a strong positive effect of a high bikeability along the route on choosing the bike as the preferred mode. This confirms that the bike friendliness on a route surrounding has a significant impact on the mode choice. Using universal open data and applying stable weighting in an automated workflow renders the approach of assessing urban bike-friendliness fully transferable and the results comparable. It, therefore, lays the foundation for various large-scale cross-sectional analyses. View Full-Text
Keywords: bikeability; cycling; active transport; built environment; infrastructure bikeability; cycling; active transport; built environment; infrastructure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hardinghaus, M.; Nieland, S.; Lehne, M.; Weschke, J. More than Bike Lanes—A Multifactorial Index of Urban Bikeability. Sustainability 2021, 13, 11584.

AMA Style

Hardinghaus M, Nieland S, Lehne M, Weschke J. More than Bike Lanes—A Multifactorial Index of Urban Bikeability. Sustainability. 2021; 13(21):11584.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hardinghaus, Michael, Simon Nieland, Marius Lehne, and Jan Weschke. 2021. "More than Bike Lanes—A Multifactorial Index of Urban Bikeability" Sustainability 13, no. 21: 11584.

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