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Article

Nexus between Household Energy and Poverty in Poorly Documented Developing Economies—Perspectives from Pakistan

1
U.S. Pakistan Center for Advanced Studies in Energy (USPCAS-E), National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
School of Chemical & Materials Engineering (SCME), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
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Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Mexico State University (NMSU), Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA
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Institute for the Future of Innovation in Society (IFIS), Arizona State University (ASU), Washington, DC 20006, USA
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Department of Electrical Engineering, Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur 10250, Pakistan
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School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alberto-Jesus Perea-Moreno
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 10894; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910894
Received: 13 June 2021 / Revised: 20 September 2021 / Accepted: 23 September 2021 / Published: 30 September 2021
The indicators measuring socioeconomic wellbeing, such as the human development index (HDI) and multi-dimensional poverty indicator (MPI), recognize energy as an important resource for human development. However, energy did not find due weight in determining HDI or MPI, except as a fractional contributor to MPI calculations. This study presents a regression model to establish an energy–poverty nexus in Pakistan, utilizing a real-world dataset. Defining poverty in terms of per-capita income (PCI), the proposed model incorporates education-based parameters along with the energy-dependent indicators linked to households in Pakistan. The data aggregated at districts level are extracted from the Census 2017 campaign, Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS). Statistical analyses indicate that energy-based identifiers correlate well with the PCI and augment the education-only model, capturing 94% variability in PCI vs. 78% for the education-only model. The study highlights the criticality of relevant data collection and data-driven planning in Pakistan for creating synergy in energy planning and poverty alleviation programs and provides recommendations for considering energy as an important and integral contributory factor in the human development index (HDI). View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainability; regression analysis; energy–poverty nexus; Pakistan; developing countries; human development index sustainability; regression analysis; energy–poverty nexus; Pakistan; developing countries; human development index
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shahid, I.A.; Ullah, K.; Khan, A.N.; Ahmed, M.I.; Dawood, M.; Miller, C.A.; Khan, Z.A. Nexus between Household Energy and Poverty in Poorly Documented Developing Economies—Perspectives from Pakistan. Sustainability 2021, 13, 10894. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910894

AMA Style

Shahid IA, Ullah K, Khan AN, Ahmed MI, Dawood M, Miller CA, Khan ZA. Nexus between Household Energy and Poverty in Poorly Documented Developing Economies—Perspectives from Pakistan. Sustainability. 2021; 13(19):10894. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910894

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shahid, Iftikhar A., Kafait Ullah, Atif N. Khan, Muhammad I. Ahmed, Muhammad Dawood, Clark A. Miller, and Zafar A. Khan 2021. "Nexus between Household Energy and Poverty in Poorly Documented Developing Economies—Perspectives from Pakistan" Sustainability 13, no. 19: 10894. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910894

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