Nexus between Household Energy and Poverty in Poorly Documented Developing Economies—Perspectives from Pakistan
2. Data and Analytical Methods
2.1. Data Collection and Preparation
- Population parameters (PP)—literacy level, primary, secondary school certificate (SSC), degree (undergrad and above), and employed (working), (5 predictors).
- Housing types (HT)—pakka (cemented houses), semi pakka (partly cemented), and kacha (not cemented/mud houses), (3 predictors).
- Housing facilities (HF)—potable water, kitchen, bath, and toilet, (4 predictors).
- Cooking energy fuels (CEF)—wood, gas, kerosene oil (K2 Oil), and others, (4 predictors).
- Lighting energy sources (LES)—electricity, K2 Oil, gas lamps, and others (4 predictors).
2.2. Preliminary Data Analysis
2.3. Data Analysis: Resolving the Collinearity Issue
2.4. Data Analysis: Proposed Regression Model
3.1. Model (1) Statistics and Its Fit to the Data
3.2. Interaction Terms in Model (1)
3.3. Residual Analysis of the Model (1)
3.4. Comparison of the Proposed Model (1) with Education-Only Model
- The data used in this research, though collected over extended time and by numerous individuals, are reliable, reflecting the real-life on-ground situation in Pakistan. Although this study has used a limited subset of this data, the analyses are likely to be applicable across the entirety of Pakistan except for a few highly developed urban centers or extremely remote rural areas.
- Education has an important linkage with the earning ability (PCI) of people in Pakistan, as is the case worldwide. The affluent population tends to aspire for greater schooling, high school, and college, and higher education enables for and offers better earning opportunities.
- Housing types and the facilities too are dependent on household income and are a good predictor of PCI.
- The critical energy–poverty nexus established through this work provides quantitative correlational evidence between energy and PCI at the district level in Pakistan. This correlation leads to the proposed model in Section 3, accounting for almost 94% variability in PCI.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|Total||2.2074 × 105||30||7357.9|
|Model||2.1128 × 105||9||23,476||52.144||2.3556 × 10−12|
|Linear||1.9159 × 105||7||27,370||60.794||1.6186 × 10−12|
|Nonlinear||19,693||2||9846.3||21.87||7.3441 × 10−6|
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|11.4929||2.0395||5.6351||1||14,296||31.755||1.360 × 10−5||7.94||30.83||16.94||5.11|
|−18.2715||3.4234||−5.3372||1||12,825||28.486||2.715 × 10−5||5.27||20.31||10.22||3.49|
|2.0789||0.3603||5.7695||1||14,986||33.287||9.991 × 10−6||2.37||85.38||49.29||24.09|
|1.1797||0.1908||6.1842||1||17,218||38.244||3.902 × 10−6|
|Number of observations (districts)||Error degrees of freedom||Root mean squared error||R-squared||Adjusted R-squared||F-statistics vs. constant model||Model p-value|
|31||21||21.2||0.957||0.939||52.1||2.36 × 10−12|
|Intercept||196.41||26.189||7.4999||4.5584 × 10−8|
|15.157||2.2327||6.7888||1||73,467||46.088||2.7254 × 10−7||7.94||30.83||16.94||5.11|
|38.765||8.4913||4.5653||1||33,223||20.842||9.7948 × 10−5||1.43||8.56||3.10||1.52|
|Number of observations (districts)||Error degrees of freedom||Root mean squared error||R-squared||Adjusted R-squared||F-statistics vs. constant model||Model p-value|
|31||27||39.9||0.805||0.783||37.2||1 × 10−9|
|Energy Source||Education||Employment||Pakka Household||Water Accessibility|
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Shahid, I.A.; Ullah, K.; Khan, A.N.; Ahmed, M.I.; Dawood, M.; Miller, C.A.; Khan, Z.A. Nexus between Household Energy and Poverty in Poorly Documented Developing Economies—Perspectives from Pakistan. Sustainability 2021, 13, 10894. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910894
Shahid IA, Ullah K, Khan AN, Ahmed MI, Dawood M, Miller CA, Khan ZA. Nexus between Household Energy and Poverty in Poorly Documented Developing Economies—Perspectives from Pakistan. Sustainability. 2021; 13(19):10894. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910894Chicago/Turabian Style
Shahid, Iftikhar A., Kafait Ullah, Atif Naveed Khan, Muhammad Imran Ahmed, Muhammad Dawood, Clark A. Miller, and Zafar A. Khan. 2021. "Nexus between Household Energy and Poverty in Poorly Documented Developing Economies—Perspectives from Pakistan" Sustainability 13, no. 19: 10894. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910894