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Review

The Influence of War and Conflict on Infectious Disease: A Rapid Review of Historical Lessons We Have Yet to Learn

1
Department of Aviation Security, Military University of Aviation, 08-521 Dęblin, Poland
2
Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
3
Academic Centre for Defence Healthcare Engagement, Research and Clinical Innovation, Royal Centre for Defence Medicine, Birmingham B15 2WB, UK
4
Faculty of Geographical Sciences, University of Łódź, 90-142 Łódź, Poland
5
Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, 41345 Gothenburg, Sweden
6
Department of Research and Development, Armed Forces Center for Defense Medicine, 42676 Gothenburg, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 10783; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910783
Received: 5 September 2021 / Revised: 22 September 2021 / Accepted: 26 September 2021 / Published: 28 September 2021
Armed conflicts degrade established healthcare systems, which typically manifests as a resurgence of preventable infectious diseases. While 70% of deaths globally are now from non-communicable disease; in low-income countries, respiratory infections, diarrheal illness, malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDs are all in the top 10 causes of death. The burden of these infectious diseases is exacerbated by armed conflict, translating into even more dramatic long-term consequences. This rapid evidence review searched electronic databases in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Of 381 identified publications, 73 were included in this review. Several authors indicate that the impact of infectious diseases increases in wars and armed conflicts due to disruption to surveillance and response systems that were often poorly developed to begin with. Although the true impact of conflict on infectious disease spread is not known and requires further research, the link between them is indisputable. Current decision-making management systems are insufficient and only pass the baton to the next unwary generation. View Full-Text
Keywords: conflicts; wars; infectious disease; civilians; casualties; deaths; vaccinations conflicts; wars; infectious disease; civilians; casualties; deaths; vaccinations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Goniewicz, K.; Burkle, F.M.; Horne, S.; Borowska-Stefańska, M.; Wiśniewski, S.; Khorram-Manesh, A. The Influence of War and Conflict on Infectious Disease: A Rapid Review of Historical Lessons We Have Yet to Learn. Sustainability 2021, 13, 10783. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910783

AMA Style

Goniewicz K, Burkle FM, Horne S, Borowska-Stefańska M, Wiśniewski S, Khorram-Manesh A. The Influence of War and Conflict on Infectious Disease: A Rapid Review of Historical Lessons We Have Yet to Learn. Sustainability. 2021; 13(19):10783. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910783

Chicago/Turabian Style

Goniewicz, Krzysztof, Frederick M. Burkle, Simon Horne, Marta Borowska-Stefańska, Szymon Wiśniewski, and Amir Khorram-Manesh. 2021. "The Influence of War and Conflict on Infectious Disease: A Rapid Review of Historical Lessons We Have Yet to Learn" Sustainability 13, no. 19: 10783. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910783

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