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Article

Smart and Sustainable Aquaculture Farms

1
Novaton, Sperletweg 59, 8052 Zürich, Switzerland
2
Civil and Geo-Environmental Laboratory (LGCgE), Lille University, 59000 Lille, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 10685; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910685
Received: 29 June 2021 / Revised: 19 September 2021 / Accepted: 23 September 2021 / Published: 26 September 2021
This paper presents the design and construction of a smart and sustainable fish farm. The farm is based on the hybrid aquaculture concept that combines the advantages of the recirculation aquaculture system (RAS), the zero-water discharge (ZWD), and smart technology. The system’s smartness consists of using the latest technology, including monitoring and automation, ensuring zero water discharge, good water quality, reduced energy consumption, and high biosecurity. In addition, the system does not use chemicals in the aquaculture process. The paper describes the design of this system, including the hydraulic system, the smart monitoring system, the feeding regime, and the control of the biological parameters. Tests conducted in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, showed high performance of this system with around 90% survival rate. In addition, observations showed the system’s capacity to maintain the water quality parameters within the optimal water quality ranges, reduce energy consumption, and sustain efficient shrimp waste recycling. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquaculture; sustainability; water quality; energy; automation; smart monitoring; recycling; RAS; ZWD; shrimp aquaculture; sustainability; water quality; energy; automation; smart monitoring; recycling; RAS; ZWD; shrimp
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kassem, T.; Shahrour, I.; El Khattabi, J.; Raslan, A. Smart and Sustainable Aquaculture Farms. Sustainability 2021, 13, 10685. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910685

AMA Style

Kassem T, Shahrour I, El Khattabi J, Raslan A. Smart and Sustainable Aquaculture Farms. Sustainability. 2021; 13(19):10685. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910685

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kassem, Taher, Isam Shahrour, Jamal El Khattabi, and Ahmad Raslan. 2021. "Smart and Sustainable Aquaculture Farms" Sustainability 13, no. 19: 10685. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910685

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