Next Article in Journal
Organizing Sport for Climate Related Adaptations: Lessons from the Water and Forestry Industries
Previous Article in Journal
The Foundational Economy as a Cornerstone for a Social–Ecological Transformation
Article

Performance Evaluation of a Field-Scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor as an Economic and Sustainable Solution for Domestic Wastewater Treatment

1
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Multidiciplinary Studies, National University of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi 46000, Pakistan
3
School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6UB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alessio Siciliano
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10461; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810461
Received: 12 August 2021 / Revised: 13 September 2021 / Accepted: 15 September 2021 / Published: 20 September 2021
The present study explored the efficiency of a four-chambered anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) as a cost-effective and sustainable method of organic pollutant and pathogen removal from domestic wastewater, under a range of environmental conditions. An ABR with a circular additional filter at the outlet pipe was constructed to treat wastewater from a residential colony of 108 households with an average inflow of 110 m3/day and a nominal hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 h. Analysis of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, sulfate and phosphate load, and total coliform removal for 2 years of operation, 2015 and 2017, showed a COD of 46%, sulfate load of 28%, phosphate load of 51% and total nitrogen of 28% for 2015, compared to a COD of 48%, sulfate load of 44%, phosphate load of 58% and total nitrogen of 31% for 2017. The lack of a significant effect of sludge removal suggested a stable process. The overall efficiency of the ABR increased in the summer, including for pathogen removal, which was significantly higher during the summer months of both years. Overall, the ABR was found to be able to consistently treat primary wastewater, although tertiary effluent treatment was still required before water reuse or final discharge. View Full-Text
Keywords: anaerobic baffled reactor; COD; temperature; residential wastewater; pathogen removal anaerobic baffled reactor; COD; temperature; residential wastewater; pathogen removal
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Saif, Y.; Ali, M.; Jones, I.M.; Ahmed, S. Performance Evaluation of a Field-Scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor as an Economic and Sustainable Solution for Domestic Wastewater Treatment. Sustainability 2021, 13, 10461. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810461

AMA Style

Saif Y, Ali M, Jones IM, Ahmed S. Performance Evaluation of a Field-Scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor as an Economic and Sustainable Solution for Domestic Wastewater Treatment. Sustainability. 2021; 13(18):10461. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810461

Chicago/Turabian Style

Saif, Yasmin, Mahwish Ali, Ian M. Jones, and Safia Ahmed. 2021. "Performance Evaluation of a Field-Scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor as an Economic and Sustainable Solution for Domestic Wastewater Treatment" Sustainability 13, no. 18: 10461. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810461

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop