# A Novel Non-Intrusive Vibration Energy Harvesting Method for Air Conditioning Compressor Unit

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Air Conditioning Outdoor Unit

#### 2.2. Air Conditioning Indoor Unit

#### 2.3. Accelerometer

#### 2.4. Piezoelectric Sensor

#### 2.5. 3D Printed and Custom-Made Mounting for Piezoelectric Sensor

#### 2.6. Experimental Setup to Obtain Vibration Data

#### 2.7. Experimental Setup for Piezoelectric Sensor

#### 2.8. RMS Voltage Calculation

#### 2.9. Data Analysis Using the One Factor Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

- k = Number of groups;
- n = Total sample size (all groups combined);
- n
_{k}= Sample size of group k; - ${\overline{x}}_{k}$ = Sample mean of group k;
- $\overline{x}$ = Grand mean.

#### 2.10. Data Analysis Using the Two Factor Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

- a = number of levels in factor A;
- b = number of levels in factor B;
- c = total number of trials.

_{T}) as shown in Equation (16).

_{A}), sum of squares due to factor B (SS

_{B}), sum of squares due to the interaction between factor A and B (SS

_{AB}), and sum of squares to the error (SS

_{E}) are shown in Equations (17)–(21).

_{A}) and B (MS

_{B}), interaction between factors (MS

_{AB}) and error (MS

_{E}) are shown in Equations (22)–(25).

_{A}) and B (v

_{B}), interaction between factors (v

_{AB}) and error (v

_{E}) are shown in Equations (26)–(29).

_{A}) and factor B (F

_{B}), interaction between factors (F

_{AB}) are calculated using Equations (30)–(32).

_{α}need to be find in critical values table for alpha value, α equals 0.05. The critical value was chosen based on numerator (v

_{1}) and the denominator (v

_{2}). For factor A, v

_{1}= v

_{A}and v

_{2}= v

_{E}while factor B, v

_{1}= v

_{B}and v

_{2}= v

_{E.}For the interaction between factor A and B, v

_{1}= v

_{AB}and v

_{2}= v

_{E}.

_{α).}

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Vibration Frequency Data

#### 3.2. Voltage Data

- q = electrical charge;
- d33 = piezoelectric constant;
- F = exerted force.

- u = voltage;
- F = the exerted force;
- d = the thickness of the piezoelectric material;
- A = the area of the piezoelectric material;
- d33 = piezoelectric constant;
- e33 = piezoelectric constant.

## 4. Conclusions

## Supplementary Materials

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Schematic diagram of the experimental setup to obtain the vibration data and RMS volt-age data.

**Figure 2.**Compressor unit (labeled 8) and service panel (labeled 10) locations at the air conditioning outdoor unit.

**Figure 3.**(

**a**). 6 placement points (A, B, C, D, E, and F) on the service panel enclosure directly adjacent to the compressor unit. (

**b**). Air conditioning outdoor unit being anchored to the wall using “L” shaped wall support mounting with no anti-vibration support. (

**c**). Vibration and Noise generated from the compressor system of the air conditioning outdoor unit in this experiment.

Source | Sum of Squares | Degree of Freedom | Mean Square | F | p-Value | F Crit |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Between Groups (Factor) | SS_{F} | V_{F} | MS_{F} | F | ||

Within Groups (Error) | SS_{E} | V_{E} | MS_{E} | |||

Total | SS_{T} |

Air Volume Flow Rates (Factor B) | |||
---|---|---|---|

Temperature (Factor A) | 1 (Low) | 2 (Medium) | 3 (High) |

20 °C | y_{111}, …, y_{11n} | y_{121}, …, y_{12n} | y_{131}, …, y_{13n} |

22 °C | Y_{211}, …, y_{21n} | y_{221}, …, y_{22n} | y_{231}, …, y_{23n} |

24 °C | y_{311}, …, y_{31n} | y_{321}, …, y_{32n} | y_{331}, …, y_{33n} |

Source | Sum of Squares | Degree of Freedom | Mean Square | F | F_{α,v1,v2} | Significant (Yes/No) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Factor A | SS_{A} | v_{A} | MS_{A} | F_{A} | F_{α,vA,vE} | |

Factor B | SS_{B} | v_{B} | MS_{B} | F_{B} | F_{α,vB,vE} | |

Factor AB | SS_{AB} | v_{AB} | MS_{AB} | F_{AB} | F_{α,vAB,vE} | |

Error | SS_{E} | v_{E} | MS_{E} | |||

Total | SS_{T} |

Significant? | |||
---|---|---|---|

Temperature | 20 °C | 22 °C | 24 °C |

Point A | Yes | Yes | Yes |

Point B | Yes | Yes | Yes |

Point C | Yes | Yes | Yes |

Point D | Yes | Yes | No |

Point E | Yes | Yes | Yes |

Point F | Yes | Yes | Yes |

Significant (Yes/No) | |||
---|---|---|---|

Placement | Factor A (Temperature) | Factor B (Air Volume Flow Rates) | Factor AB |

A | Yes | Yes | No |

B | Yes | Yes | No |

C | Yes | Yes | No |

D | Yes | Yes | No |

E | Yes | Yes | No |

F | Yes | Yes | No |

Significant (Yes/No) | |||
---|---|---|---|

Placement | Factor A | Factor B | Factor AB |

A | No | Yes | No |

B | Yes | Yes | No |

C | Yes | Yes | No |

D | Yes | Yes | No |

E | Yes | Yes | No |

F | Yes | Yes | No |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Yang, C.C.; Bin Noor Hanafi, N.F.R.; Bt Mohamad Hanif, N.H.H.; Ismail, A.F.; Chang, H.-H. A Novel Non-Intrusive Vibration Energy Harvesting Method for Air Conditioning Compressor Unit. *Sustainability* **2021**, *13*, 10300.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810300

**AMA Style**

Yang CC, Bin Noor Hanafi NFR, Bt Mohamad Hanif NHH, Ismail AF, Chang H-H. A Novel Non-Intrusive Vibration Energy Harvesting Method for Air Conditioning Compressor Unit. *Sustainability*. 2021; 13(18):10300.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810300

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Yang, Chuan Choong, Noor Fiqri Razqi Bin Noor Hanafi, Noor Hazrin Hany Bt Mohamad Hanif, Ahmad Faris Ismail, and Hsueh-Hsien Chang. 2021. "A Novel Non-Intrusive Vibration Energy Harvesting Method for Air Conditioning Compressor Unit" *Sustainability* 13, no. 18: 10300.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810300