Stochastic Particle Tracking Application in Different Urban Areas in Central Europe: The Milano (IT) and Jaworzno (PL) Case Study to Secure the Drinking Water Resources
- Large mega sites, which are located in a former industrial and often abandoned sub-region, historically known (sometimes in operation for more than half a century) and whose responsibility to groundwater contamination is well recognized. There are many cases in the literature [11,12,13] where groundwater contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) or pesticides is a major cause of deteriorating drinking water quality. At a local scale, a mega site can be associated to several PSs but at a regional scale it should be considered as a unique large contaminated area.
- Several point sources, which are corresponding to several industrial sites whose contribution has been discontinuous during time due to different industrial activity (i.e., change of final product, change of use of product). In this case, it is difficult to find the liable part as the contamination spreading from these sites can create a superimposition of different plumes [14,15].
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Methodology Description: A Decisional Framework to Secure Water Supply Wells
2.2. Site 1 (S1)—Milano FUA: A PT-MC Approach to Assess the Area Involved by Several Point Sources
2.2.1. Study Area, Hydrogeology and Conceptual Model
2.2.2. Application of the NSMC Method
Stochastic PT Results
- Northern part of Milano: there are 2 suspected sources. Source n°S10 heavily impacts the groundwater within 3 km from it (yellow area), then the impact decreases (with lower, but non-zero probability) but can be still tracked far as 7 km downgradient of the area. On the contrary, source n°S9 has a lower impact and the probability to affect the groundwater downgradient decreases quickly with distance (less than 1% within 3 km).
- Municipalities near Milano: the presence of a large industrialized area immediately in the outer border of Milano involved many suspected sources (from n°S3 to n°S8). Sources n°S5 and n°S8 seem to not affect the water supply wells in Milano, as the yellow area (frequency of passage is about 10%, representing the main direction of particles) flows outside the city. The PT coming from sources n°S4 and S7 are superimposed: the probability that contamination coming from them can affect Novara, San Siro and Tonezza pumping stations is not negligible. The main direction of the plume from source n°S3 is towards Cimabue and Chiusabella pumping stations, with a frequency close to 30%. The last source (n°S6) causes a contamination of the very close Vialba pumping station (the yellow area has an extension no more than 2 km from the source), even if the dismissed Espinasse pumping station, closed in the 80’s for the highly contaminated waters, is also interested by the particle arrival.
- Milano municipality: some brownfields are located inside the city borders. The source n°S11 highly affects Cimabue pumping station, being just upgradient of this well field. The high frequency of passage (around 30%, orange area) is due to the superimposition with source n°S3, located immediately upgradient outside the city borders. Source n°S1 and S2 may affect both the Cimabue and the dismissed Espinasse Stations with a relatively high frequency (10–20%).
2.3. Site 2 (S2)—Jaworzno FUA: A Deterministic PT Approach to Assess the Area Involved by a “Mega Site” Source
2.3.1. Study Area, Hydrogeology and Conceptual Model
- Quaternary valley of Wąwolnica river, starting from the Chemical Plant Organika-AZOT and further downstream to the Przemsza river valley
- Triassic hills located south of the Wąwolnica valley
- Quaternary valley of Przemsza river, located above and below its confluence with Wąwolnica.
- Neogen—glacifluvial sands and gravels forming Quaternary aquifers interbedded with discontinuous impermeable clay layers–variable thickness, in post-glacial buried valleys up to a few tens of meters (in Figure 6b is represented by various zones of K-field marked by all other colors except green).
2.3.2. MC PT Procedure and Results
- The Figure 9a presents the normalized root mean square error (nRMSE) for all collected 61 model variants vs the K-field of Quaternary deposits in Przemsza valley downstream the contaminated site. The native model (i.e., the best calibrated model) conductivity value is represented by the black dot in Figure 9a.
3. Discussion and Conclusions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Colombo, L.; Gzyl, G.; Mazzon, P.; Łabaj, P.; Frączek, R.; Alberti, L. Stochastic Particle Tracking Application in Different Urban Areas in Central Europe: The Milano (IT) and Jaworzno (PL) Case Study to Secure the Drinking Water Resources. Sustainability 2021, 13, 10291. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810291
Colombo L, Gzyl G, Mazzon P, Łabaj P, Frączek R, Alberti L. Stochastic Particle Tracking Application in Different Urban Areas in Central Europe: The Milano (IT) and Jaworzno (PL) Case Study to Secure the Drinking Water Resources. Sustainability. 2021; 13(18):10291. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810291Chicago/Turabian Style
Colombo, Loris, Grzegorz Gzyl, Pietro Mazzon, Paweł Łabaj, Robert Frączek, and Luca Alberti. 2021. "Stochastic Particle Tracking Application in Different Urban Areas in Central Europe: The Milano (IT) and Jaworzno (PL) Case Study to Secure the Drinking Water Resources" Sustainability 13, no. 18: 10291. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810291