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Article

Integrated Cycles for Urban Biomass as a Strategy to Promote a CO2-Neutral Society—A Feasibility Study

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Bioprocess Engineering, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Universitätsplatz 2, 39104 Magdeburg, Germany
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Leibniz Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops (IGZ), Theodor-Echtermeyer-Weg 1, 14979 Grossbeeren, Germany
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Urban Water Management/Wastewater, Hochschule Magdeburg-Stendal, Breitscheidstrasse 2, 39114 Magdeburg, Germany
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Agrathaer GmbH, Eberswalder Street 84, 15374 Müncheberg, Germany
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Jassen GmbH, Egertenweg 10, 79585 Steinen, Germany
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Process Systems Engineering, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Sandtorstraße 1, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
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Technical and Business Information Systems, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Universitätsplatz 2, 39194 Magdeburg, Germany
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Microbiology, Anhalt University of Applied Sciences, Bernburger Strasse 55, 06354 Köthen, Germany
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Bioprocess Engineering, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Sandtorstraße 1, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carlos Morón Fernández
Sustainability 2021, 13(17), 9505; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179505
Received: 22 July 2021 / Revised: 16 August 2021 / Accepted: 20 August 2021 / Published: 24 August 2021
The integration of closed biomass cycles into residential buildings enables efficient resource utilization and avoids the transport of biowaste. In our scenario called Integrated Cycles for Urban Biomass (ICU), biowaste is degraded on-site into biogas that is converted into heat and electricity. Nitrification processes upgrade the liquid fermentation residues to refined fertilizer, which can be used subsequently in house-internal gardens to produce fresh food for residents. Our research aims to assess the ICU scenario regarding produced amounts of biogas and food, saved CO2 emissions and costs, and social–cultural aspects. Therefore, a model-based feasibility study was performed assuming a building with 100 residents. The calculations show that the ICU concept produces 21% of the annual power (electrical and heat) consumption from the accumulated biowaste and up to 7.6 t of the fresh mass of lettuce per year in a 70 m2 professional hydroponic production area. Furthermore, it saves 6468 kg CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq) per year. While the ICU concept is technically feasible, it becomes economically feasible for large-scale implementations and higher food prices. Overall, this study demonstrates that the ICU implementation can be a worthwhile contribution towards a sustainable CO2-neutral society and decrease the demand for agricultural land. View Full-Text
Keywords: integrated cycles for urban biomass; biogas; carbon footprint; sustainability; renewable energy; plant cultivation; feasibility study; simulations; CO2-neutral society integrated cycles for urban biomass; biogas; carbon footprint; sustainability; renewable energy; plant cultivation; feasibility study; simulations; CO2-neutral society
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MDPI and ACS Style

Meinusch, N.; Kramer, S.; Körner, O.; Wiese, J.; Seick, I.; Beblek, A.; Berges, R.; Illenberger, B.; Illenberger, M.; Uebbing, J.; Wolf, M.; Saake, G.; Benndorf, D.; Reichl, U.; Heyer, R. Integrated Cycles for Urban Biomass as a Strategy to Promote a CO2-Neutral Society—A Feasibility Study. Sustainability 2021, 13, 9505. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179505

AMA Style

Meinusch N, Kramer S, Körner O, Wiese J, Seick I, Beblek A, Berges R, Illenberger B, Illenberger M, Uebbing J, Wolf M, Saake G, Benndorf D, Reichl U, Heyer R. Integrated Cycles for Urban Biomass as a Strategy to Promote a CO2-Neutral Society—A Feasibility Study. Sustainability. 2021; 13(17):9505. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179505

Chicago/Turabian Style

Meinusch, Nicole, Susanne Kramer, Oliver Körner, Jürgen Wiese, Ingolf Seick, Anita Beblek, Regine Berges, Bernhard Illenberger, Marco Illenberger, Jennifer Uebbing, Maximilian Wolf, Gunter Saake, Dirk Benndorf, Udo Reichl, and Robert Heyer. 2021. "Integrated Cycles for Urban Biomass as a Strategy to Promote a CO2-Neutral Society—A Feasibility Study" Sustainability 13, no. 17: 9505. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179505

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