Next Article in Journal
Learning to Leave and to Return: Mobility, Place, and Sense of Belonging amongst Young People Growing up in Border and Rural Regions of Mainland Portugal
Next Article in Special Issue
Less Food Wasted? Changes to New Zealanders’ Household Food Waste and Related Behaviours Due to the 2020 COVID-19 Lockdown
Previous Article in Journal
Green Energy—Green for Whom? A Case Study of the Kabinakagami River Waterpower Project in Northern Canada
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sorting Analysis of Household Food Waste—Development of a Methodology Compatible with the Aims of SDG12.3

Quantifying Food Loss and Waste in Saudi Arabia

National Program for the Reduction of Food Loss and Waste, Saudi Grains Organization (SAGO), Riyadh 12343, Saudi Arabia
College of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh 12343, Saudi Arabia
College of Business Administration, Northern Border University, Arar 9280, Saudi Arabia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Felicitas Schneider, Stefan Lange and Thomas Schmidt
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 9444;
Received: 5 July 2021 / Revised: 8 August 2021 / Accepted: 11 August 2021 / Published: 23 August 2021
Using the FAO model calculations proposed by Gustavsson et al. (2013) and FAO (2014), food loss and waste (FLW) is measured in Saudi Arabia with a special focus on wheat, rice, dates, poultry, vegetables, fruits, fish, and meat. Results show that the overall FLW rate is 33.1%, where the food loss rate is 14.2%, and the food waste rate is 18.9%. Acceding to the disaggregated results, we find that FLW rates are distributed as follows: 29.7% for wheat, 33.6% for rice, 21.4%, for dates 29.1% for poultry, 39.5% for vegetables, 39.6% for fruits, 33% for fish, and 31.3% for meat. The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 12.3) target is to reduce the rates of food loss and waste by 50% in 2030, and to help achieve that goal, we employed a nonlinear optimisation simulation model with the objective function of reducing FLW by 50% over the period 2020–2030. Based on the findings achieved, recommendations are made to cover the various aspects of the whole food supply chain (FSC) and to aim at more efficiency and higher levels of productivity. Our findings have significant implications by estimating the FLW baseline indicator and providing the different stakeholders of FSC with the optimal actions to do to reduce FLW rates. View Full-Text
Keywords: food loss and waste; Saudi baseline; FLW quantification food loss and waste; Saudi baseline; FLW quantification
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Alshabanat, Z.; Alkhorayef, A.; Ben Haddad, H.; Mezghani, I.; Gouider, A.; Tlili, A.; Allouche, M.A.; Gannouni, K.A. Quantifying Food Loss and Waste in Saudi Arabia. Sustainability 2021, 13, 9444.

AMA Style

Alshabanat Z, Alkhorayef A, Ben Haddad H, Mezghani I, Gouider A, Tlili A, Allouche MA, Gannouni KA. Quantifying Food Loss and Waste in Saudi Arabia. Sustainability. 2021; 13(16):9444.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alshabanat, Zaid, Abdulrahman Alkhorayef, Hedi Ben Haddad, Imed Mezghani, Abdessalem Gouider, Adel Tlili, Mohamed. A. Allouche, and Kais A. Gannouni. 2021. "Quantifying Food Loss and Waste in Saudi Arabia" Sustainability 13, no. 16: 9444.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop