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Article

Use of Sewage Sludge Ash in the Production of Innovative Bricks—An Example of a Circular Economy

1
Water Research Department, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Department of Materials, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Division of Experimental Physics, Ruđer Bošković Institute, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Moncef L. Nehdi
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 9330; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169330
Received: 2 July 2021 / Revised: 12 August 2021 / Accepted: 14 August 2021 / Published: 19 August 2021
In this paper the properties of clay bricks with 5 wt%, 10 wt%, and 20 wt% sewage sludge ash (SSA) were studied and compared with the properties of control bricks made of 100% clay. Sewage sludge (SS) was collected at two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Croatia—WWTP Zagreb and WWTP Karlovac—and incinerated at a temperature of 900 °C The bricks were produced on a laboratory scale. A total of seven types of bricks were produced—control bricks and six types of bricks as combinations of different wt% of SSA generated from SS that was collected at two different WWTPs. The physical and mechanical properties of produced bricks were tested. Compressive strengths of bricks with 5 wt% SSA (54.0–54.5 N/mm2) and 10 wt% SSA (50.2–51.0 N/mm2) were higher compared to the control bricks (50.4 N/mm2), while bricks with 20 wt% SSA (37.0–43.9) N/mm2) had noticeably lower compressive strenght. The coefficient of saturation was lower for bricks with SSA compared to control bricks. The initial absorption values were more pronounced for SSA fractions of 20 wt%. View Full-Text
Keywords: sewage sludge; SSA; bricks; brick production; recycling; circular economy sewage sludge; SSA; bricks; brick production; recycling; circular economy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bubalo, A.; Vouk, D.; Stirmer, N.; Nad, K. Use of Sewage Sludge Ash in the Production of Innovative Bricks—An Example of a Circular Economy. Sustainability 2021, 13, 9330. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169330

AMA Style

Bubalo A, Vouk D, Stirmer N, Nad K. Use of Sewage Sludge Ash in the Production of Innovative Bricks—An Example of a Circular Economy. Sustainability. 2021; 13(16):9330. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169330

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bubalo, Andelina, Drazen Vouk, Nina Stirmer, and Karlo Nad. 2021. "Use of Sewage Sludge Ash in the Production of Innovative Bricks—An Example of a Circular Economy" Sustainability 13, no. 16: 9330. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169330

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