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Article

Investigation of Bus Drivers’ Reaction to ADAS Warning System: Application of the Gaussian Mixed Model

by 1,2,3, 1,2,3,4,*, 1,2,3, 1,2,3 and 1,2,3
1
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Urban ITS, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China
2
Jiangsu Province Collaborative Innovation Center of Modern Urban Traffic Technologies, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China
3
School of Transportation, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China
4
Intelligent Transportation System Research Center, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Feng Zhu, Wenbo Zhang, Yuntao Guo and Jian Wang
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 8759; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13168759
Received: 31 May 2021 / Revised: 31 July 2021 / Accepted: 2 August 2021 / Published: 5 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Sustainability and Resilience in Smart Cities)
Road crashes cause serious loss of life and property. Among all vehicles, buses are more likely to encounter crashes. In recent years, the advanced driving assistance system (ADAS) has been widely used in buses to improve safety. The warning system is one of the key functions and has proven effective in reducing crashes. However, drivers often ignore or overreact to ADAS warnings during naturalistic driving scenarios. Therefore, reactions of bus drivers to warnings need further investigation. In this study, bus drivers’ responses to lane departure warning (LDW) and forward collision warning (FCW) were investigated using 20-day naturalistic driving data. These reactions could be classified into three categories, namely positive, negative, and overreaction or emergency, by employing the Gaussian mixture model. The authors constructed a framework to quantify drivers’ reactions to the warning and study the reaction characteristics in different environments. The results indicate that drivers’ reactions to FCW were more positive than to LDW, drivers reacted more positively to LDW and FCW while driving on highways than on urban roads, and drivers reacted more positively at night to LDW and FCW than during daytime. This study gives support to an adaptive ADAS considering varying bus driver characteristics and environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: advanced driver assistance systems; forward collision warning; lane departure warning; bus drivers’ reaction; Gaussian mixed model advanced driver assistance systems; forward collision warning; lane departure warning; bus drivers’ reaction; Gaussian mixed model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ye, W.; Xu, Y.; Zhou, F.; Shi, X.; Ye, Z. Investigation of Bus Drivers’ Reaction to ADAS Warning System: Application of the Gaussian Mixed Model. Sustainability 2021, 13, 8759. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13168759

AMA Style

Ye W, Xu Y, Zhou F, Shi X, Ye Z. Investigation of Bus Drivers’ Reaction to ADAS Warning System: Application of the Gaussian Mixed Model. Sustainability. 2021; 13(16):8759. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13168759

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ye, Wei, Yueru Xu, Feixiang Zhou, Xiaomeng Shi, and Zhirui Ye. 2021. "Investigation of Bus Drivers’ Reaction to ADAS Warning System: Application of the Gaussian Mixed Model" Sustainability 13, no. 16: 8759. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13168759

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