# Setting Up a Flipped Classroom Design to Reduce Student Academic Procrastination

^{1}

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

#### Academic Procrastination

## 2. Methodology

#### 2.1. Objective

#### 2.2. Participants

#### Information Collection Tools

## 3. Data Analysis and Results

#### 3.1. Activities Outside the Classroom

^{2}= 0.8683), we can state that the nonlinear function more accurately describes the measured data. The estimated nonlinear trend is given by 7.5335 ln(x) + 8.3211. Based on the above results, we can state that the time increase in the number of downloads does not have a natural linear course (the reliability of the linear model would be R

^{2}= 0.6631). We consider the cause of the non-linear increase in the number of downloads to be a suitably set design of the flipped class. We consider this trend primarily as a consequence of the content of activities taking place in the classroom. At the same time, the fact that the video recordings focused on explaining some key or problematic parts of the content of the written materials also contributed to this trend.

#### 3.2. Students’ Activity in the Classroom

#### 3.3. Knowledge Test

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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${\mathit{p}}_{\mathbf{11}}$ ${\mathit{p}}_{\mathbf{21}}$ $\vdots $ ${\mathit{p}}_{\mathit{r}\mathbf{1}}$ | ${\mathit{p}}_{\mathbf{12}}$ ${\mathit{p}}_{\mathbf{22}}$ $\vdots $ .${\mathit{p}}_{\mathit{r}\mathbf{2}}$ | ……$\vdots $ … | ${\mathit{p}}_{\mathbf{1}\mathit{r}}$ ${\mathit{p}}_{\mathbf{2}\mathit{r}}$ $\vdots $ ${\mathit{p}}_{\mathit{r}\mathit{r}}$ | ${\mathit{p}}_{\mathbf{1}\cdot}$ ${\mathit{p}}_{\mathbf{2}\cdot}$ $\vdots $ .${\mathit{p}}_{\mathit{r}\cdot}$ |

${p}_{\cdot 1}$ | ${p}_{\cdot 2}$ | … | ${p}_{\cdot r}$ | 1 |

${\mathit{n}}_{\mathbf{11}}$ ${\mathit{n}}_{\mathbf{21}}$ $\vdots $ ${\mathit{n}}_{\mathit{r}\mathbf{1}}$ | ${\mathit{n}}_{\mathbf{12}}$ ${\mathit{n}}_{\mathbf{22}}$ $\vdots $ .${\mathit{n}}_{\mathit{r}\mathbf{2}}$ | ……$\vdots $ … | ${\mathit{n}}_{\mathbf{1}\mathit{r}}$ ${\mathit{n}}_{\mathbf{2}\mathit{r}}$ $\vdots $ ${\mathit{n}}_{\mathit{r}\mathit{r}}$ | ${\mathit{n}}_{\mathbf{1}\cdot}$ ${\mathit{n}}_{\mathbf{2}\cdot}$ .$\vdots $ ${\mathit{n}}_{\mathit{r}\cdot}$ |

${n}_{\cdot 1}$ | ${n}_{\cdot 2}$ | … | ${n}_{\cdot r}$ | n |

_{i}= $\sum _{j=1}^{r}{n}_{ij}$, $i=1,2,\dots ,r,$ ${n}_{\cdot j}$= $\sum _{i=1}^{r}{n}_{ij}$, $j=1,2,\dots ,r$.

Before | After | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Sum | |

1 | 7 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 7 |

2 | 19 | 5 | 2 | 0 | 0 | 26 |

3 | 12 | 19 | 5 | 0 | 0 | 35 |

4 | 2 | 19 | 7 | 0 | 0 | 28 |

5 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 2 | 2 | 5 |

Sum | 40 | 42 | 14 | 2 | 2 | 100 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Gonda, D.; Pavlovičová, G.; Tirpáková, A.; Ďuriš, V.
Setting Up a Flipped Classroom Design to Reduce Student Academic Procrastination. *Sustainability* **2021**, *13*, 8668.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158668

**AMA Style**

Gonda D, Pavlovičová G, Tirpáková A, Ďuriš V.
Setting Up a Flipped Classroom Design to Reduce Student Academic Procrastination. *Sustainability*. 2021; 13(15):8668.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158668

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Gonda, Dalibor, Gabriela Pavlovičová, Anna Tirpáková, and Viliam Ďuriš.
2021. "Setting Up a Flipped Classroom Design to Reduce Student Academic Procrastination" *Sustainability* 13, no. 15: 8668.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158668