Battling Food Losses and Waste in Saudi Arabia: Mobilizing Regional Efforts and Blending Indigenous Knowledge to Address Global Food Security Challenges
2. Materials and Methods: Fulfilling G20 Presidency as Leader in Tackling FLW
“MACS emphasized the importance of science and technology, pre- and post-harvest and throughout the food value chain, to reduce FLW including the control of plant and animal diseases, enhanced storage technologies, innovative packaging solutions, prolonged shelf life, creation of value added byproducts, and improved management practices”.
To support FAO, IFPRI, and other relevant international organizations in their efforts to develop a platform related to FLW, MACS agreed to share information and experiences relating to agricultural science and technology, in measuring and reducing FLW. MACS emphasized the value of having a common definitional and measurement framework as noted by Agriculture Ministers.
MACS agreed that a subset of members, led by Germany and in consultation with FAO and IFPRI, would conduct a preliminary mapping of their existing science and technology activities related to FLW, so as to contribute to enhanced information sharing and global coordination…” .
- Germany: Sustainability assessment methodology to evaluate FLW prevention measures for monitoring purposes and as information basis for decision makers.
- UK: Innovative public-private partnerships to achieve 27% reduction in food waste. The strategies developed in the UK, delivered through wide-ranging partnerships supported by Governments and industry are effective—but more citizens and businesses must be reached and motivated to act.
- Italy: Value from food chains and waste reduction: Complementary approaches for global sustainable food systems and bio-based economy.
- USA: Food waste and the Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Water and energy footprints of produced and landfilled food waste: A Florida case study.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Status of Food System in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
3.2. Extent of Food Loss and Waste in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
3.3. Stage-Specific Policies to Overcome Food Losses along the Entire Food Supply Chain
3.3.1. Pests and Diseases Management Program to Reduce Food Losses
3.3.2. Cold Chain Strategy to Reduce Food Losses
3.4. Food Waste Drivers and Strategies to Overcome Food Waste along the Food Supply Chain
3.4.1. Food Processing Approaches to Reduce Food Waste
3.4.2. Food Recycling Potential Opportunities for Wasted Food
3.5. Guidelines to Tackle Food Loss and Waste
3.5.1. Enabling Policy Reforms for Quantifying FLW Baseline, Setting Intermediate FLW Targets, and Stopping Unfair Trading Practices
3.5.2. Mobilizing Regional and Global Efforts through Collaborative Initiatives
3.5.3. Promoting and Developing Circular Economy Practices for Waste Utilization
3.5.4. Changing Behavior to Reduce Hospitality Waste
3.5.5. Awareness Campaigns to Reduce Household Food Waste
3.5.6. Promoting the Concept of Food Banks for Surplus Food Redistribution
3.5.7. Research and Innovations
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Food Products||Volume of FLW (Tonnes)||Overall FLW Share (%)||Loss Share (%)||Waste Share (%)||Value of FLW (Million USD/Year)||Value of FLW (Million SR/Year)||Total FLW/Capita (kg/Capita/Year)|
|Wheat Flour Bread||917,000||30.00||5.00||25.00||243||913||28|
|Name||Waste Entity||Possible Outputs||Reference|
|Apples||Peels, Pomace, and seeds, etc.||Food products, fuel, pectin extraction, animal feed, Phenolic compounds, antioxidants, dietary fibers||[34,35,36]|
|Berries||Seeds, Pomace||Oil, phenolic compounds, antioxidants, fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, dietary fibers, enriched cookies||[39,40,41]|
|Citrus fruits||Waste materials, rag, pulp, peels, seeds, etc.||Food processing, increase dietary fibers contents of sausages, bioactive compounds, flavonoids, polyphenols, dietary fibers, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, promising alternative as a fat replacer in ice cream production, essential oils, pectins||[42,43,44,45,46]|
|Grapes||Unripe grapes, Pomace, grape agro-waste||Bioactive phytochemicals, phenolic compounds||[47,48]|
|Mangoes||Peel and seeds||Bioactive compounds||[50,51]|
|Melons||Barks, peels, and seeds||Antioxidants, bioactive compounds, food processing|||
|Olives||Pomace||Natural phenolic antioxidants, bioactive compounds||[53,54]|
|Pineapple||Core, crown, and peel parts of pineapples||Antioxidants, bioactive compounds, glycosides, polyphenols||[55,56]|
|Carrot||Pomace||α- and β-carotene|||
|Onion||Brown skin and top–bottom, husk||Dietary fibers, bioactive compounds, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, fuel pellets||[58,59,60]|
|Tomato||Peel, pomace, and tomato waste||Bioactive compounds, natural additives, lycopene, beta-carotene, glutamic acid or aspartic acid, food products enrichment, ellagic and chlorogenic acids||[61,62,63]|
|Potato||Potato waste and peel||Bioactive compounds, antioxidants, glycoalkaloids and polyphenols, natural food additive||[64,65,66]|
|Mixture of vegetables||Vegetable wastes of potato, pumpkin, brinjal, cauliflower, and cabbage||Biobutanol, protease production, biomethane production||[67,68,69]|
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Al-Khateeb, S.A.; Hussain, A.; Lange, S.; Almutari, M.M.; Schneider, F. Battling Food Losses and Waste in Saudi Arabia: Mobilizing Regional Efforts and Blending Indigenous Knowledge to Address Global Food Security Challenges. Sustainability 2021, 13, 8402. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158402
Al-Khateeb SA, Hussain A, Lange S, Almutari MM, Schneider F. Battling Food Losses and Waste in Saudi Arabia: Mobilizing Regional Efforts and Blending Indigenous Knowledge to Address Global Food Security Challenges. Sustainability. 2021; 13(15):8402. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158402Chicago/Turabian Style
Al-Khateeb, Suliman Ali, Abid Hussain, Stefan Lange, Mohammad M. Almutari, and Felicitas Schneider. 2021. "Battling Food Losses and Waste in Saudi Arabia: Mobilizing Regional Efforts and Blending Indigenous Knowledge to Address Global Food Security Challenges" Sustainability 13, no. 15: 8402. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158402