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Article

Addition of Activated Carbon into a Cattle Diet to Mitigate GHG Emissions and Improve Production

1
Faculty of Health Engineering and Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350, Australia
2
School of Agricultural Engineering and Animal Production, Diali University, Diali 32001, Iraq
3
Centre of Research and Innovation, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350, Australia
4
School of Health and Life Sciences, Federation University, Ballarat 3353, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andy Herring
Sustainability 2021, 13(15), 8254; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158254
Received: 24 May 2021 / Revised: 8 July 2021 / Accepted: 13 July 2021 / Published: 23 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Power and Energy Systems for People, the Planet, and Profit)
Globally, the most problematic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of ruminant livestock is methane (CH4), with a global warming potential 25 times that of carbon dioxide. This work considers the emissions and production effects of powdered activated carbon (PAC) at 0.5% by dry matter (DM) on methanogenic rumen flora as the major source of dairy cattle enteric methane emissions. In total, 180 dairy cattle located in Brymaroo, Queensland (QLD), Australia, were studied in a three-cycle repeated measures ANOVA format with a 4 week primary interval. Emissions eructated during milking and in faecal deposits were measured, and in addition, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed to determine the collective populations of prokaryotic bacteria and archaea as well methanogenic communities for each treatment. Moreover, 0.5% PAC addition reduced CH4 emissions by 30–40% and CO2 emissions by 10%, while improving daily milk production by 3.43%, milk protein by 2.63% and milk fat by 6.32%, on average for the herd (p < 0.001 in all cases). rRNA gene sequencing showed populations of methanogenic flora decreased by 30% on average with a corresponding increase in the nonmethanogenic species. We strongly advocate further on-farm trials with the dietary addition of PAC in ruminant diets to mitigate emissions while maintaining or improving productivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; methane (CH4); powdered activated carbon (PAC); ruminants greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; methane (CH4); powdered activated carbon (PAC); ruminants
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Azzawi, M.; Bowtell, L.; Hancock, K.; Preston, S. Addition of Activated Carbon into a Cattle Diet to Mitigate GHG Emissions and Improve Production. Sustainability 2021, 13, 8254. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158254

AMA Style

Al-Azzawi M, Bowtell L, Hancock K, Preston S. Addition of Activated Carbon into a Cattle Diet to Mitigate GHG Emissions and Improve Production. Sustainability. 2021; 13(15):8254. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158254

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Azzawi, Mohammed, Les Bowtell, Kerry Hancock, and Sarah Preston. 2021. "Addition of Activated Carbon into a Cattle Diet to Mitigate GHG Emissions and Improve Production" Sustainability 13, no. 15: 8254. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158254

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