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Review

Food Security, Environmental Health, and the Economy in Mexico: Lessons Learned with the COVID-19

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Cuerpo Académico de Medicina Traslacional, Departamento de Medicina y Nutrición, División de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus León, León, Guanajuato 37670, Mexico
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Observatorio Universitario de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional del Estado de Guanajuato, León, Guanajuato 37299, Mexico
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División de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus León, León, Guanajuato 37670, Mexico
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Departamento de Ingeniería Ambiental, División de Ingenierías, Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus, Guanajuato 36000, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mohammad Valipour
Sustainability 2021, 13(13), 7470; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137470
Received: 13 April 2021 / Revised: 7 June 2021 / Accepted: 8 June 2021 / Published: 5 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Public Health and Social Science on COVID-19)
The COVID-19 pandemic showed an impact mainly on the health of people and the economy of households. The levels of food security in the world’s households, especially in Mexico, have decreased. When people do not have food security, their health is compromised and they have financial problems; on the other hand, environmental deterioration has a link with food security. The purpose of this review is to analysis of the current situation in Mexico of food security, environmental health and economy, the main lessons learned in these areas and their proposals integrating public policies. A review was carried out in the main databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL Plus, Web of Science, CAB Abstracts y PAIS Index) with the following keywords and according to the MeSH terms: Food security, food insecurity, environmental health, public policies, environmental, production, integrating the word COVID-19 in English and Spanish. Only 44.5% of Mexican households presented food security. For food insecurity, 22.6% had moderate and severe food insecurity, while 32.9% had mild insecurity. Food insecurity and the health impacts of environmental origin (waste management during the coronavirus pandemic, water contaminated by bacteria, viruses, and toxins; air pollution) generates impacts on economic activity by not offering food that meets health regulations. Without the application of cost-effective measures and interventions for the prevention and control of patients with obesity, the direct costs for 2023 will amount to 9 million dollars, which worsens the household economy. Despite having laws and policies on the right to food, a healthy environment (water), and opportunities for economic growth, these human rights are not fulfilled. The conclusion is that it is necessary to use a health and agroecological model to promote public policies (health, environment, and economy) that aims to prevent the discussed issues, with multidisciplinary and intersectoral interventions (government, academia, researchers, civil society organizations, industry, and population). This upholds the human right that all people should enjoy an adequate, healthy environment and have access to high-quality food. View Full-Text
Keywords: food security; environmental health; economical system; COVID-19 food security; environmental health; economical system; COVID-19
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MDPI and ACS Style

Monroy-Torres, R.; Castillo-Chávez, Á.; Carcaño-Valencia, E.; Hernández-Luna, M.; Caldera-Ortega, A.; Serafín-Muñoz, A.; Linares-Segovia, B.; Medina-Jiménez, K.; Jiménez-Garza, O.; Méndez-Pérez, M.; López-Briones, S. Food Security, Environmental Health, and the Economy in Mexico: Lessons Learned with the COVID-19. Sustainability 2021, 13, 7470. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137470

AMA Style

Monroy-Torres R, Castillo-Chávez Á, Carcaño-Valencia E, Hernández-Luna M, Caldera-Ortega A, Serafín-Muñoz A, Linares-Segovia B, Medina-Jiménez K, Jiménez-Garza O, Méndez-Pérez M, López-Briones S. Food Security, Environmental Health, and the Economy in Mexico: Lessons Learned with the COVID-19. Sustainability. 2021; 13(13):7470. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137470

Chicago/Turabian Style

Monroy-Torres, Rebeca, Ángela Castillo-Chávez, Erika Carcaño-Valencia, Marco Hernández-Luna, Alex Caldera-Ortega, Alma Serafín-Muñoz, Benigno Linares-Segovia, Karen Medina-Jiménez, Octavio Jiménez-Garza, Monserrat Méndez-Pérez, and Sergio López-Briones. 2021. "Food Security, Environmental Health, and the Economy in Mexico: Lessons Learned with the COVID-19" Sustainability 13, no. 13: 7470. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137470

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