- A broad web search for scholarly literature using the terms “blue economy” and “blue agenda.”
- A targeted web search of known agencies, organizations, and non-government organizations actively involved in blue activities (e.g., the African Union, the United Nations Economic Commission of Africa, etc.).
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Potential for Blue Economy
3.2. Governance of Africa’s Oceans to Advance a Sustainable Blue or Ocean Economy
3.3. Building on Existing Policy
3.4. Approach Transformation
4. Conclusions and Recommendations
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Potential POSITIVES of Proper Development of the Blue Economy||UN SDGs||AU Agenda 2063: Aspirations||Potential NEGATIVES of Improper Development of the Blue Economy|
|Transition to low-carbon economies|
Resilience to uncertain climate future
Environmentally sustainable and climate-resilient economies and communities
|Increased carbon intensity |
Coastal degradation leading to climate vulnerability
|Enhanced health of aquatic and marine ecosystems|
Increased stock abundance supporting
Life below water
Blue/ocean economy for accelerated growth
|Overexploitation of aquatic and marine resources|
|Increased water security|
Enhanced sustainable transboundary water sharing
Life on land
Environmentally sustainable and climate-resilient economies and communities
Promotion of continental peace and security
Life on land
Capable institutions and transformative leadership in place
Failure to implement and enforce laws and regulation
Dutch disease and resource curse
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