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Article

Agent-Based Modeling of the Hajj Rituals with the Possible Spread of COVID-19

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Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering and Islamic Architecture, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Electrical Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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Mathematical Sciences Department, College of Science, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain 15551, United Arab Emirates
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College of Computer and Information Systems, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia
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Emirates Center for Mobility Research, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain 15551, United Arab Emirates
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Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain 15551, United Arab Emirates
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Noga Collins-Kreiner
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6923; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126923
Received: 24 May 2021 / Revised: 11 June 2021 / Accepted: 16 June 2021 / Published: 19 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pilgrimage and Sustainability in the Post COVID 19 Era)
With the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic continuing to spread around the globe, there is an unprecedented need to develop different approaches to containing the pandemic from spreading further. One particular case of importance is mass-gathering events. Mass-gathering events have been shown to exhibit the possibility to be superspreader events; as such, the adoption of effective control strategies by policymakers is essential to curb the spread of the pandemic. This paper deals with modeling the possible spread of COVID-19 in the Hajj, the world’s largest religious gathering. We present an agent-based model (ABM) for two rituals of the Hajj: Tawaf and Ramy al-Jamarat. The model aims to investigate the effect of two control measures: buffers and face masks. We couple these control measures with a third control measure that can be adopted by policymakers, which is limiting the capacity of each ritual. Our findings show the impact of each control measure on the curbing of the spread of COVID-19 under the different crowd dynamics induced by the constraints of each ritual. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; Hajj; disease dynamics; preventative measures; agent-based modeling COVID-19; Hajj; disease dynamics; preventative measures; agent-based modeling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Shaery, A.M.; Hejase, B.; Tridane, A.; Farooqi, N.S.; Jassmi, H.A. Agent-Based Modeling of the Hajj Rituals with the Possible Spread of COVID-19. Sustainability 2021, 13, 6923. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126923

AMA Style

Al-Shaery AM, Hejase B, Tridane A, Farooqi NS, Jassmi HA. Agent-Based Modeling of the Hajj Rituals with the Possible Spread of COVID-19. Sustainability. 2021; 13(12):6923. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126923

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Shaery, Ali M., Bilal Hejase, Abdessamad Tridane, Norah S. Farooqi, and Hamad A. Jassmi. 2021. "Agent-Based Modeling of the Hajj Rituals with the Possible Spread of COVID-19" Sustainability 13, no. 12: 6923. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126923

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