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Agroecological Strategies to Safeguard Insect Pollinators in Biodiversity Hotspots: Chile as a Case Study

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Instituto de Entomología, Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación, Av. José Pedro Alessandri 174, Santiago 7760197, Chile
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Laboratorio de Sistemática y Evolución, Departamento de Silvicultura y Conservación de la Naturaleza, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8320000, Chile
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Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Silvoagropecuarias y Veterinarias, Campus Sur Universidad de Chile, Santa Rosa 11315, Santiago 8820808, Chile
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Agroecology Lab, Interfaculty School of Bioengineering, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Boulevard du Triomphe CP 264/02, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sean Clark
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6728; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126728
Received: 5 May 2021 / Revised: 2 June 2021 / Accepted: 8 June 2021 / Published: 14 June 2021
Industrial agriculture (IA) has been recognized among the main drivers of biodiversity loss, climate change, and native pollinator decline. Here we summarize the known negative effects of IA on pollinator biodiversity and illustrate these problems by considering the case of Chile, a “world biodiversity hotspot” (WBH) where food exports account for a considerable share of the economy in this country. Most of Chile’s WBH area is currently being replaced by IA at a fast pace, threatening local biodiversity. We present an agroecological strategy for sustainable food production and pollinator conservation in food-producing WBHs. In this we recognize native pollinators as internal inputs that cannot be replaced by IA technological packages and support the development of agroecological and biodiversity restorative practices to protect biodiversity. We suggest four fundamental pillars for food production change based on: (1) sharing the land, restoring and protecting; (2) ecological intensification; (3) localized knowledge, research, and technological development; and (4) territorial planning and implementation of socio-agroecological policies. This approach does not need modification of native pollination services that sustain the world with food and basic subsistence goods, but a paradigm change where the interdependency of nature and human wellbeing must be recognized for ensuring the world’s food security and sovereignty. View Full-Text
Keywords: agroecology; sacrifice zones; Apoidea; water deficit; pesticides agroecology; sacrifice zones; Apoidea; water deficit; pesticides
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MDPI and ACS Style

Henríquez-Piskulich, P.A.; Schapheer, C.; Vereecken, N.J.; Villagra, C. Agroecological Strategies to Safeguard Insect Pollinators in Biodiversity Hotspots: Chile as a Case Study. Sustainability 2021, 13, 6728. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126728

AMA Style

Henríquez-Piskulich PA, Schapheer C, Vereecken NJ, Villagra C. Agroecological Strategies to Safeguard Insect Pollinators in Biodiversity Hotspots: Chile as a Case Study. Sustainability. 2021; 13(12):6728. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126728

Chicago/Turabian Style

Henríquez-Piskulich, Patricia A., Constanza Schapheer, Nicolas J. Vereecken, and Cristian Villagra. 2021. "Agroecological Strategies to Safeguard Insect Pollinators in Biodiversity Hotspots: Chile as a Case Study" Sustainability 13, no. 12: 6728. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126728

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